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Ankaŭ bonvolu aldoni la nomon de fidindaj kunlaborantoj (eble ĉiu el la listoj email@example.com , EUfirstname.lastname@example.org, ktp...).
Mi jam aldonis kelkajn.
Ĉiu jam difinita kunlaboranto rajtas aldoni pliajn kunlaborantojn.
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Mi estas kontaktebla kiel raymondgerard(ĉe)pandora.be kaj perSkajpe kiel remushBE
traduko en Esperanto (fuŝeta ĉi momente)
la termino en diversaj lingvoj
difino de la termino, rimarkoj, ekzemploj...
Iu ajn referenco al Eŭropa Konstitucio provizore malvalidas ĝis la aprobo de nova reformita traktato kiu anstataŭos la projekton de la Konstitucia Traktato.
Renato Corsetti kaj Manfred Westmaier el AVE esence konfirmas ke estas
akcetebla la formo "Eŭropunio," kaj ĈEFE ĝia adjektiva formo
Pri jenaj tri vortoj, mi konkludus:
- la formo "Eŭropa Unio" estas la pli taŭga. Ties akronimo estas EU;
- strikte temante pri "Eŭropa Unio" taŭgas la adjektivo "eŭropunia";
- ne strikte temante pri "Eŭropa Unio" EN SIA TUTO, pli taŭgas
Nu, jen kiel mi tradukus iujn terminojn kun iliaj mallongigoj:
- eŭrozono= eŭroareo (ne rilatas al TUTA EU)
- ECB = Eŭropa Centra Banko (ne rilatas al TUTA EU)
- EU = Eŭropa Unio
- EU-P = eŭropunia Parlamento
- EU-KM = eŭropunia Komisiono (UE-registaro)
- EU-KN = eŭropunia Konsilio (de Ŝtatestroj aŭ Ĉefministroj)
- EU-KF = Konsilio (de la Fakministroj)
- EU-KR = eŭropunia Komitato de la Regionoj
- EU-ESK= eŭropunia Ekonomia kaj Sociala Komitato
- EU-KHR= eŭropunia Kortumo de Homaj Rajtoj
- EU-KJ = eŭropunia Kortumo de Justico
- EU-ŝtato = eŭropunia ŝtato=membro ŝtato de la Eŭropa Unio
- EU-traktato = eŭropunia traktato
- EU-mediaciisto= eŭropunia mediaciisto
- OEU = Okcidenta EU (armea EU-organizo kadre de NATO, konata kiel UEO)
agadkampoj de la Unio
en:areas of Union action
fr:domaines d’action de l’Union
Agentejoj de Eŭropa Unio; Eŭropuniaj agentejoj
La agentejoj de La Eŭropa Unio estas organizoj kiuj funkcias sub Eŭropa publika juro kaj posedas juran personecon. Ili estis starigitaj de decido de EU-a derivita leĝo por plenumi specifajn teknikajn, sciencajn aŭ administraciajn taskojn.
La unuaj agentejoj estis starigitaj en la 1970aj jaroj, sed la plimulto el ili efektive eklaboris ekde 1994 aŭ 1995, post kiam la Brusela Eŭropa Konsilio (Oktobro 1993) difinis la sidejon de sep el ili. La plej freŝdataj estas la ekzekutivaj agentejoj kiuj estis kreitaj por administri unu aŭ pliajn Eŭropajn programojn. Tiuj agentejoj estas starigitaj por antaŭdifinita periodo kaj iliaj sidejoj lokiĝas en Bruselo aŭ Luksemburgo. 29 organizoj aktuale konformiĝas al la difino de Komunuma agentejo, eĉ se malsamas iliaj diversaj nomoj (centro, fondaĵo, agentejo, ofico, observejo, ktp.). Ĉar kiel memstaraj organizoj, la agentejoj formas diverskonsistajn grupojn, kunigitajn per komuna organiza modelo. Ili povas esti dividitaj en tri subgrupoj laŭ iliaj agadterenoj (pilieroj de La Eŭropa Unio), al kiu freŝdate estis aldonitaj la ekzekutivaj agentejoj:
Agencies in the field of the common foreign and security policy:
Agencies in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters:
sana financa administro
en:sound financial management
fr:bonne gestion financière
pritrakti la kurantajn aferojn
en:to handle everyday business
fr:expédier les affaires courantes
Komuna agado (KPES)
Komuna agado, kiu estas jura instrumento sub Titolo V de la Traktato sur Eŭropa Unio (komuna politiko pri eksterlandaj rilatoj kaj sekureco, KPES), signifas kunordigitan agadon de la Membroŝtatoj per kiu ĉiaj rimedoj (homforto, povoscio, financado, ilaro, ktp.) estas uzataj por atingi specifajn objektivojn fiksitajn de la Konsilio surbaze de ĝeneralaj gvidlinioj de la Eŭropa Konsilio.
Por simpligi la kunagadon, la malakceptita Eŭropa Konstitucio restriktis KPES-instrumentojn al Eŭropaj decidoj kaj internaciaj interkonsentoj.Laŭ tiu eksigita konstitucio, komunaj agadoj kaj ilia efektivigo devus baziĝi sur Eŭropaj decidoj (neleĝdonaj instrumentoj) adoptitaj de la Konsilio de la ministroj.
Komuna agado (justico kaj enlandaj aferoj)
La termino "Komuna agado" estis uzita inter 1993 kaj 1999. Tiu agado estis laŭleĝa instrumento sub eksa Titolo VI de la EU Traktato. Tio signifis kunordigitan agadon de la Membroŝtatoj nome aŭ kadre de la Unio kiam la Uniaj objektivoj povus esti pli efike atingitaj de komuna agado ol de unuopa agado de la Membroŝtatoj, pro la amplekso aŭ efiko de la antaŭvidita agado. La termino estis forigita de la Traktato de Amsterdamo kaj anstataŭigita de "decido" kaj "kadra decido" (vidu aliloke).
La komunumaj atingaĵoj estas la piedestalo de komunumaj rajtoj kaj devontigoj kiuj kunligas ĉiujn Membroŝtatojn kune pro partopreno al la Eŭropa Unio. Ĝi estas daŭre evoluanta kaj konsistas el:
Tiele la komunumaj atingaĵoj konsistas ne nur el komunumaj leĝoj laŭ la strikta senco, sed ankaŭ el ĉiuj aktoj adoptitaj sub la dua kaj tria pilieroj de la Eŭropa Unio kaj el la komunaj celoj preskribitaj en la Traktatoj. La Unio devontigas sin konservi la komunumajn atingaĵojn en sia tuteco kaj plu evoluigi ĝin. Kandidataj landoj devas akcepti la komunumajn atingaĵojn antaŭ aliĝi la Union. Esceptoj al la atingaĵoj estas maloftegaj kaj tempe limigitaj. Antaŭ ol integriĝi en la Eŭropan Union, kandidataj landoj devos transpreni la atingaĵojn en siajn naciajn leĝojn kaj efektivigi ĝin ekde ilia ekaliĝo.
fr: actes d’exécution de l’Union
Aliĝo de nova membroŝtato
Aliĝo de novaj Membroŝtatoj al la Eŭropa Unio estas organizita de Artikolo 49 de la EU-a Traktato. Ŝtato kiu deziras aliĝi al la Unio devas plenumi du kondiĉojn:
La Konsilio devas konsenti unuanime pri la aliĝo, post konsultado de la Komisiono kaj aprobado de la Eŭropa Parlamento.
La kondiĉoj kaj dato de aliĝo, samkiel ajna transira periodo bezonata kaj la akomodiĝoj al la Traktatoj sur kiu la Unio fondiĝas, estas difinitaj en la aliĝa traktato inter la kandidata lando kaj la Membroŝtatoj.
Por oficialigi la aliĝon, tiu traktato estas ratifikita de ĉiuj Membroŝtatoj kaj de la kandidata lando konforme al ĝiaj propraj konstituciaj reguloj.
Praktike, aliĝo ne aŭtomatas, ĉar ĝi dependas de la situacio de la koncerna kandidata lando. Do varias la longeco de la antaŭaliĝa periodo, dum kiu la kandidata lando adaptas siajn instituciojn, normojn kaj infrastrukturo por plenumi siajn devontigojn de Membroŝtato je la tempo de aliĝo.
la kondiĉoj kaj aranĝoj por aliĝo
en:the conditions and arrangements for admission
fr:les conditions et les modalités d’admission
alprenas la aranĝojn necesajn
en:adopt such measures as are necessary
fr:adopte les mesures nécessaires
alpreni mocion pri malaprobo
en:pass a censure motion
fr:adopter une motion de censure
Areo de libero, sekuro kaj justo
Por permesi veran liberan cirkuladon de individuoj tra la teritorio de La Eŭropa Unio kaj pli efike batali kontraŭ mafiismo kaj fraŭdo, oni decidis krei areon de libereco, sekureco kaj justeco.
Antaŭe, aferoj rilataj al justeco kaj enlandaj aferoj (JEA) sole dependis de la interregistraraj reguloj, precipe sub Titolo VI de la EU Traktato (la "tria piliero").
La Amsterdama Traktato "kumunumigas" azilan, enmigradan kaj justican kunlaboron en civilaj juĝaferoj. Ĝi konservas la trian pilieron, nun sole dediĉitan al polican kaj justican kunlaboron en krimaj aferoj. Sed ĉiuj aferoj rilataj al Justicaj kaj Enlandaj Aferoj, ĉu ili rilatas al la unua piliero, ĉu al la tria, estas grupigitaj sub la komuna projekto: ALSJ - Areo de Libereco, Sekureco kaj Justico.
Eŭropa areo de esplorado
La Eŭropa Areo de Esploro (EAE) grupigas ĉiujn Komunumajn rimedojn por pli bone kunordigi esplorojn kaj ennovigadojn je la nivelo kaj de la Membroŝtatoj kaj de la Eŭropa Unio.
Ĉi tiu koncepto estis lanĉita de la Komisiono en 2000 kun la ideo oferti vere allogajn oportunecojn al esploristoj. Antaŭe, esploroj je Eŭropa nivelo alfrontis multajn malfacilaĵojn: fragmentiĝon de agfortoj, izoleco de naciaj esplorsistemoj, malsimileco de reglamentaj kaj administraciaj sistemoj, kaj trolimigitaj investoj en edukadon.
Dank'al la rimedoj provizitaj, la EAE ebligas la diskonigon de informoj, la komparadon de rezultoj, la starigon de plurfakaj studoj, la transdonon kaj protektadon de novaj sciencaj konoj kaj la alireblecon al centroj de elstareco kaj al plej avangardaj aparatoj.
La Eŭropa Areo de Esploro do ambicias efektivigi veran komunan politikon pri scienca esplorado, tasko de decidiga graveco por La Eŭropa Unio.
La Eŭropa arestmandato estas juĝa decido farita de Membroŝtato postulanta de alia Membroŝtato la arestadon kaj liveradon de persono serĉata por esti persekutata pro krimo aŭ esti enkarcerigita.
Temas pri procedurilo celanta plifortigi kunlaboradon inter la juĝaj aŭtoritatoj de la Membroŝtatoj sen uzi ekstradicion. Ĝi baziĝas sur la principo de reciproka agnosko de decidoj pri krimaj aferoj.
La Eŭropa arestmandato baziĝas sur Kadra Decido adoptita de la Konsilio je la 13-a de Junio 2002. Ĉi tiu decido ekvalidas de la 1-a de Januaro 2004.
elektita per senpera universala baloto
en:elected by direct universal suffrage
fr:élu au suffrage universel direct
Eŭropa centra banko
Fondita je la 30-a de Junio 1998 en Frankfurto, la Eŭropa Centra Banko (ECB) respondecas pri monpolitiko en la dek tri membroŝtatoj de la Eŭrozono. Ekde la 1-a de Januaro 1999, ĝiaj ĉefaj taskoj estas la konservado de stabilaj prezoj en la Eŭrozono kaj la efektivigo de Eŭropa monpolitiko kiel difinita de la Eŭropa Sistemo de Centraj Bankoj (ESCB).
La decidofaraj instancoj de la ECB (Ekzekutiva Estraro kaj Konsilio de bankestroj) administras la Eŭropan Sistemon de Centraj Bankoj (ESCB), kies roloj estas administri la monan kvanton, negoci devizojn, teni kaj administri la oficialan fremdan monrezervon de la Membroŝtatoj kaj certigi la glatan funkciadon de pagsistemoj.
La ECB agas tute sendepende.
La Traktato de Nico, kiu ekvalidiĝis je la 1-a de Februaro 2003, ne ŝanĝis la kunmetadon de la Konsilio de bankestroj (konsistanta el la membroj de la Ekzekutiva Estraro kaj de la estroj de la naciaj centraj bankoj), sed kreis la eblecon de ŝanĝi la reguloj pri decidofarado (ĝenerale adoptita je simpla plimulto de membroj po unu voĉo).
La vastigo de la Eŭrozono al la dek landoj kiuj aliĝis la Union en 2004 kaj ankaŭ al Bulgario kaj al Rumanio en 2007 kreskigis la membraron de la Konsilio de bankestroj. Tiel, Konsilia Decido de Marto 2003 permesis ŝanĝi la statutojn de ECB kaj ESCB pri voĉdonado. La celo estas daŭrigi la kapablon de la Konsilio de bankestroj efike decidi en la vastigita Eŭrozono, kiu ajn la nombro de Membroŝtatoj kiuj adoptas la eŭron.
en:European Investment Bank (EIB)
fr:Banque européenne d'investissement (BEI)
nl:Europese Investeringsbank (EIB)
Set up by the Treaty of Rome, the European Investment Bank is the European Union's financial institution. Its task is to contribute to economic, social and territorial cohesion through the balanced development of the EU territory.
The EIB's shareholders are the 27 Member States of the European Union. The bank is supervised by the Board of Governors, which comprises the 27 Finance Ministers. It has legal personality and is financially independent. It provides long-term financing for practical projects, the economic, technical, environmental and financial viability of which is guaranteed. It grants loans essentially from resources borrowed on capital markets, to which is added shareholders' equity. Between 1994 and 1999 the transport, telecommunications, energy, water, education and training sectors were the main beneficiaries.
In March 2000 the Lisbon European Council called for a strengthening of support for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The EIB Group, which comprises the EIB and the European Investment Fund (EIF), was thus created with a view to boosting European economic competitiveness. Through the Innovation 2000 initiative, it fosters entrepreneurship, innovation and the optimal utilisation of human resources by granting SMEs medium-term loans and bank guarantees, and by financing venture capital activities.
Outside the European Union the EIB supports the pre-accession strategies of the candidate countries and of the Western Balkans. It also manages the financial dimension of the agreements concluded under European development aid and cooperation policies. In this connection, it is active in the Mediterranean countries and in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries.
Batalo kontraŭ organizita krimado
en:Fight against organised crime
fr:Lutte contre la criminalité organisée
nl:Bestrijding van de georganiseerde criminaliteit
de:Bekämpfung der organisierten Kriminalität
The fight against organised crime, which forms part of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (Treaty on European Union, Title VI, third pillar) is intended to afford the public a high level of safety within an area of freedom, security and justice.
EU policy seeks to prevent and combat organised crime. It is informed by and complements the work of the international organisations.
Implementation is largely based on alignment of national criminal law in this area and on the work of Europol and, to a certain extent, of Eurojust.
Efforts to combat organised crime rest on the five-year programme adopted in 2004 in The Hague, following on from the 1999 Tampere programme. A centrepiece is the development of a strategic concept envisaged by the Hague programme and presented by the Commission in 2005.
Batalo kontraŭ monlavado
en:Measures to combat money laundering
fr:Lutte contre le blanchiment des capitaux
nl:Bestrijding van het witwassen van geld
de:Bekämpfung der Geldwäsche
Money laundering is the process by which those engaging in criminal activity conceal the illegal origin of the resulting property or income.
Better cooperation between Member States, and in particular their customs authorities, is one of the aims pursued in the efforts to prevent money laundering. Such efforts within the Union are thus of two types:
While action was already taken in the 1990s under the first pillar, the third pillar has been used to strengthen the Union's policy. On this basis, efforts to combat money laundering rest on action programmes, currently the five-year programme adopted in 2004 in The Hague, which follows on from the 1999 Tampere programme.
The European Constitution now being ratified has added money laundering, counterfeiting means of payment and computer crime to the list drawn up for the minimum harmonisation of criminal offences and penalties.
Batalo kontraŭ rasismo kaj ksenofobio
en:Fight against racism and xenophobia
fr:Lutte contre le racisme et la xénophobie
nl:Bestrijding van racisme en vreemdelingenhaat
de:Bekämpfung von Rassismus und Fremdenfeindlichkeit
The first key measure in the fight against racism was the resolution adopted by the Council and the representatives of the Member States in July 1996, declaring 1997 to be the "European Year against Racism".
Since the advent of the Amsterdam Treaty, Article 13 has provided a basis for combating all forms of discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. It was on the basis of this Article that in June 2000 the Council adopted an important directive implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin.
In the same year the Council also adopted a Community action programme to combat discrimination (2001-06) designed to support schemes to prevent and combat discrimination based on race or ethnic origin.
In addition to committing itself to the implementation of Article 13, the European Union has pursued its efforts to integrate the fight against racism and xenophobia into all its policies: in particular employment, the European Structural Funds, education, training and youth. Moreover, Article 29 of the Treaty on European Union, inserted by the Amsterdam Treaty, provides a legal basis for the fight against racism and xenophobia in the fields of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters.
Entry into force of the Nice Treaty (1 February 2003) supplemented the penalty mechanism already provided for by the Amsterdam Treaty with a prevention or warning mechanism, particularly targeting human rights abuses such as racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism.
Batalo kontraŭ terorismo
en:Fight against terrorism
fr:Lutte contre le terrorisme
nl:Bestrijding van terrorisme
de:Bekämpfung des Terrorismus
Article 29 of the Treaty on European Union refers specifically to terrorism as a serious crime. The Union's efforts to combat terrorism fall under the third pillar, i.e. police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (EU Treaty, Title VI).
Terrorist offences are defined as intentional acts such as kidnapping or hostage taking, release of dangerous substances, causing fires, floods or explosions the effect of which is to endanger human life, murders and acts which may seriously damage a country or an international organisation where committed with the aim of seriously intimidating a population, coercing the public authorities, or seriously destabilising or destroying the fundamental political structures (Framework Decision of 13 June 2002).
In the battle against terrorism, the European Union has a number of specific tools which make it easier for the Member States' law enforcement agencies to provide mutual assistance:
Other tools are concerned more directly with terrorist organisations, their members and operations. These include a common list of persons whose terrorist assets must be confiscated.
Since the attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001, the main stages in the development of the Union's anti-terrorist policy have been marked by various events:
The efforts to combat terrorism are currently based on the five-year programme adopted in 2004 in The Hague. This sets out action priorities for 2005-2010.
Batalo kontraŭ drogoj
en:Fight against drugs
fr:Lutte contre la drogue
The fight against drugs involves various activities, geared mainly to preventing addiction and combating illicit trafficking. The specific legal basis for European Union action depends on the type of measure undertaken.
Combating illicit drug trafficking has been clearly identified by the Treaty of Amsterdam as an objective under the new Title VI of the Treaty on European Union, and thus falls within the scope of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters.
As far as preventing drug addiction is concerned, that aspect is covered by Article 152 of the Treaty establishing the European Community, which stipulates that "the Community shall complement the Member States' action in reducing drugs-related health damage, including information and prevention".
In the light of the conclusions of the European Council meetings held in Cardiff (June 1998) and in Vienna (December 1998), the Council, the Commission and Parliament were asked to develop a comprehensive drugs strategy to follow on from the action plan covering the period 1995-99. The Commission's response to this request was to present:
In December 2004, the European Council approved a European drugs strategy for the period 2005-12, comprising two action plans for the periods 2005-08 and 2008-12.
The fight against illicit drug trafficking is led by Europol's "Drugs" Unit, an intelligence unit which facilitates police and customs cooperation between the Member States.
The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, based in Lisbon, is responsible for providing the Community and its Member States with objective, reliable and comparable information giving an overview of the drugs and drug addiction phenomenon and its consequences.
Batalo kontraŭ fraŭdo
en:Fight against fraud
fr:Lutte contre la fraude
The fight against fraud and corruption is part of the general efforts to combat organised crime but also concerns the more specific issue of countering all illegal activities adversely affecting the financial interests of the Community. It rests on two legal bases:
Since June 1999, the body tasked with combating fraud has been the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF), which replaces the fraud prevention task force (UCLAF) set up in 1988.
At the Nice Intergovernmental Conference (February 2000), in order to strengthen Community action in this area, the Commission proposed incorporating into the Treaties a legal basis for establishing a system of rules on criminal-law proceedings for transnational fraud and appointing a European public prosecutor to coordinate investigations and prosecute offences involving the Union's financial interests. This proposal was followed by a Green Paper (December 2001) on criminal-law protection of the Community's financial interests, suggesting the appointment of a European prosecutor.
The European Constitution now being ratified retains the wording of Article 280 of the EC Treaty, omitting part of the article but opening the way for the Union to take appropriate criminal-law measures to protect its financial interests. The Constitution also provides for a European Public Prosecutor's Office to be established from Eurojust in order to combat crimes affecting the financial interests of the Union.
fr:Bien-être des animaux
The question of animal welfare was first addressed in legislation in 1974. The requirements in this area were acknowledged specifically in an additional protocol attached to the Treaty of Amsterdam (1997). This "Protocol on protection and welfare of animals" lays down new rules for EU action in this area. It officially recognises that animals are sentient beings and obliges the European institutions to pay full regard to the welfare requirements of animals when formulating and implementing common policies.
European legislation in the field of animal welfare aims to save animals from any unnecessary suffering in three main areas: farming, transport and slaughter. It is essential to take measures in these areas not only for ethical and moral reasons, but also for health of the animals and the quality of foodstuffs. As part of a comprehensive strategy on food safety, other Community policies (agriculture, transport, internal market and research) are also required to take account of this necessity.
At the start of 2006, the Commission adopted a five-year action plan to reinforce existing standards, extend research, put in place evaluation and participation measures and promote animal welfare at international level.
In cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States, the Food and Veterinary Office (FVO) carries out on-the-spot checks to ensure compliance with Community legislation. Its role has grown since the enlargement of the EU to 27 Member States.
All the European Union's revenue and expenditure is entered in the Community budget on the basis of annual forecasts.
The budget is governed by several principles, including:
The European Commission is responsible for submitting an annual preliminary draft budget to the Council, which shares budgetary authority with the European Parliament. The nature of the expenditure determines how power is shared between the two institutions, depending on whether the expenditure is compulsory (the Council has the last word) or non-compulsory (the Parliament takes the final decision). Ultimately, the European Parliament adopts or rejects the budget as a whole.
In order to stabilise the annual budgets, they have since 1988 been the subject of multiannual interinstitutional agreements between Parliament, the Council and the Commission on budgetary discipline. These multiannual "financial perspectives" govern the allocation of expenditure and seek to ensure a suitable level of funding and support the Union's priorities.
The European Constitution now being ratified provides for the financial perspectives to be institutionalised under the name of the "multiannual financial framework", to be respected by all the institutions. This is intended to ensure that expenditure develops in an orderly fashion within the limits of the Union's own resources.
The Constitution also does away with the current distinction under the budgetary procedure between compulsory expenditure and non-compulsory expenditure.
potenculo pro la ofico
Civitaneco de la unio
en:Citizenship of the Union
fr:Citoyenneté de l'Union
nl:Burgerschap van de Unie
European citizenship was established by the Treaty on European Union (EU Treaty), signed in Maastricht in 1992.
Citizenship of the Union is dependent on holding the nationality of one of the Member States. In other words, anyone who is a national of a Member State is considered to be a citizen of the Union. In addition to the rights and duties laid down in the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty), Union citizenship confers four special rights:
Following the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam (1999), the status of "European citizen" also confers the following rights:
The introduction of the notion of Union citizenship does not replace national citizenship: it is an addition to it. This gives citizens a deeper and more tangible sense of belonging to the Union.
The European Constitution, currently being ratified, provides for a new legal basis allowing the EU to adopt laws establishing measures required to facilitate diplomatic and consular protection for European citizens. Under the terms of the current treaties, it is the task of the Member States to determine these measures.
COREU (CORespondance EUropéenne)
COREU estas EUa komunikreto inter la Membroŝtatoj kaj la Komisiono por kunlaboro sur la tereno de eksterlanda politiko. Ĝi plifaciligas rapidan decidadon okaze de krizaj situacioj.
Ĉarto de fundamentaj rajtoj
en:Charter of Fundamental Rights
fr:Charte des droits fondamentaux
nl:Handvest van de grondrechten
Following the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in December 1998, the Cologne European Council (3 and 4 June 1999) decided to begin work on drafting a Charter of Fundamental Rights. The aim was that the fundamental rights applicable at Union level should be consolidated in a single document to raise awareness of them.
The EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights was solemnly proclaimed by the Nice European Council on 7 December 2000. It is based on the Community Treaties, international conventions such as the 1950 European Convention on Human Rights and the 1989 European Social Charter, constitutional traditions common to the Member States and various European Parliament declarations.
The work of drawing up the draft Charter was entrusted to a special body - a Convention - made up of sixty-two members including representatives of the European institutions and the governments of the Member States. In its seven chapters divided into 54 articles, the Charter defines fundamental rights relating to dignity, liberty, equality, solidarity, citizenship and justice.
The Constitution that is currently in the process of ratification marks an important step forward for the protection of fundamental rights in the Union. It integrates the Charter of Fundamental Rights and gives the Union the right to accede to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). The Charter, which until now has been a solemn Declaration by the institutions, is incorporated into the Constitution and provides the Union and the Member States with a list of fundamental rights which will be legally binding on its signatories. The Charter will also become more visible to all Europeans and make them better informed of their rights. While the ECHR is limited to protecting civil and political rights, the Charter goes further to cover workers' social rights, data protection, bioethics and the right to good administration.
en:Public service charter
fr:Charte des services publics
nl:Handvest van de openbare diensten
de:Charta der öffentlichen Dienste
The idea behind a public service charter is that there should be an instrument setting out the basic rights and principles governing the provision of services to users. Such principles would include:
Article 16 of the EC Treaty, introduced by the Treaty of Amsterdam, confirms the role of public services in the European Union. The EU policy on operators of public services is still shaped by the desire to liberalise network public services and to widen the scope of competition on national markets, be this in the areas of rail transport, postal services, energy or telecommunications.
Sociala ĉarto (ĉarto de la fundamentaj socialaj rajtoj de dungitoj)
en:Social Charter (Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers)
fr:Charte sociale (charte des droits sociaux fondamentaux des travailleurs)
nl:Sociaal handvest (handvest van de sociale grondrechten van de werkenden)
de:Sozialcharta (Charta der sozialen Grundrechte der Arbeitnehmer)
The Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers, known as the Social Charter, was adopted in 1989, in the form of a declaration by all Member States except the United Kingdom, which did not sign it until 1998. It is seen as a political instrument containing "moral obligations" whose object is to guarantee that certain social rights are respected in the countries concerned. These relate primarily to the labour market, vocational training, social protection, equal opportunities and health and safety at work. It also contains an explicit request to the Commission to put forward proposals for translating the content of the Social Charter into legislation. The Social Charter has been followed up by action programmes and specific legislative proposals.
The Charter of Fundamental Rights, proclaimed in Nice on 7 December 2000 and incorporated in full in the European Constitution (undergoing ratification), includes the rights set out in this Social Charter.
la Eŭropa Konsilio rajtas ĉesigi la mandaton
en:the European Council can end his or her mandate
fr:Le Conseil européen peut mettre fin à son mandat
Debato pri la estonteco de Eŭropa Unio
en:Debate on the future of the European Union
fr:Débat sur l'avenir de l'Union européenne
nl:Debat over de toekomst van de Europese Unie
Having given the green light to enlargement, the 2000 Intergovernmental Conference (IGC 2000) called for a broader and deeper debate on the future of the European Union. To this end, the Nice Declaration, annexed to the Treaty of Nice, called for the initiation of a broad debate associating all the interested parties: the representatives of the national parliaments, as well as a wide range of public opinion, i.e. political and commercial organisations, universities and representatives of civil society, in both the Member States and the candidate countries.
This debate on the future of the Union continued until mid-2003, via discussions and the Internet, so as to gather together as many opinions as possible on the key issues relating to the future of Europe. It was encouraged by the Commission, which hoped the debate would be held both at European level, with contributions and discussion forums involving personalities from the Community, and at national level, with national debates on the future of the Union that involve a wide range of citizens.
The exchanges which took place in the context of this debate were conducted in parallel with the work of the preparatory Convention for the IGC 2004.
On 18 June 2004 the heads of state or government meeting as an IGC agreed, with some compromises, on the draft European Constitution prepared by the Convention.
La Konsilio de ministroj
decidas per kvalifika plimulto.
en:the Council of Ministers shall act by a qualified majority.
fr: le Conseil des ministres statue à la majorité qualifiée
Decido kaj kadra decido (Titolo VI de la EUa traktato)
en:Decision and framework decision (Title VI of the EU Treaty)
fr:Décision et décision-cadre (Titre VI du traité UE)
nl:Besluit en kaderbesluit (Titel VI van het VEU)
de:Beschluss und Rahmenbeschluss (Titel VI EU-Vertrag)
With the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam, these new instruments under Title VI of the EU Treaty (Police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters) have replaced joint action. More binding and more authoritative, they should serve to make action under the reorganised third pillar more effective.
Framework decisions are used to approximate (align) the laws and regulations of the Member States. Proposals are made on the initiative of the Commission or a Member State and they have to be adopted unanimously. They are binding on the Member States as to the result to be achieved but leave the choice of form and methods to the national authorities.
Decisions are used for any purpose other than approximating the laws and regulations of the Member States. They are binding and any measures required to implement them at Union level are adopted by the Council, acting by a qualified majority.
With the abolition of the third pillar, which is provided for by the European Constitution currently being ratified, the decisions and framework decisions currently in use will disappear and be replaced by European laws and framework laws.
fr: décision européenne
per unuanima decido
fr:statuant à l'unanimité
juĝaj kaj eksterjuĝejaj decidoj
en:judicial and extrajudicial decisions
fr: décisions judiciaires et extrajudiciaires
Collective defence refers to participation in the defence of Europe under the Treaties of Brussels (Article V) and Washington (Article 5), which stipulate that in the event of aggression, the signatory states are required to provide assistance for the restoration of security:
Since 1949, NATO has been the principal guarantor of security in western Europe, whereas the Western European Union (WEU) has been dormant for nearly 30 years. However, the WEU is the only strictly European organisation to have established an automatic collective defence obligation. The development of a European security and defence identity (ESDP) in no way affects the principle that NATO continues to form the basis of Europe's collective defence.
The democratic deficit is a concept invoked principally in the argument that the European Union and its various bodies suffer from a lack of democracy and seem inaccessible to the ordinary citizen because their method of operating is so complex. The view is that the Community institutional set-up is dominated by an institution combining legislative and government powers (the Council of the European Union) and an institution that lacks democratic legitimacy (the European Commission).
At every stage of the European integration process, the question of democratic legitimacy has become increasingly sensitive. The Maastricht, Amsterdam and Nice Treaties have triggered the inclusion of the principle of democratic legitimacy within the institutional system by reinforcing the powers of Parliament with regard to the appointment and control of the Commission and successively extending the scope of the codecision procedure.
In the meantime, two wider initiatives designed to bring Europe closer to its citizens have been launched.
Following the Nice European Council (December 2000), a broad public debate on the future of the Union started, in which citizens could take part, and a European Convention was asked to examine various ways of improving democratic legitimacy. The Convention eventually came up with a draft European Constitution that was adopted in a compromise form by the Heads of State or Government in June 2004.
The European Constitution, currently being ratified, represents decisive progress towards a more democratic Europe. It boosts the Union's democratic legitimacy by means of the following:
Deklaro de Laken
fr:Déclaration de Laeken
nl:Verklaring van Laken
One year after the Treaty of Nice and the Nice Declaration, which calls for institutional reform to be pursued beyond the 2000 Intergovernmental Conference (IGC 2000), the European Council, meeting in Laeken, adopted a Declaration on the Future of the European Union, or Laeken Declaration, on 15 December 2001, committing the Union to becoming more democratic, transparent and effective.
This Declaration poses 60 targeted questions on the future of the Union, around four main themes: the division and definition of powers, the simplification of the treaties, the institutional set-up and moving towards a Constitution for European citizens. It convened a Convention bringing together the main stakeholders to examine the fundamental questions raised by the future development of the Union so as to prepare in as broad and transparent a way as possible for the 2004 IGC.
The Convention concluded its work on 10 July 2003 after reaching agreement on the proposed Constitutional Treaty. On 18 June 2004 the Heads of State or Government of the Member States reached a compromise agreement on the draft European Constitution prepared by the Convention.
Kvankam Deklaro estas rimedo kiu ne troviĝas en Titolo V de la Traktato por Eŭropa Unio, ĝi tamen karakterizas Eŭropan politikan kunlaboradon (EPK). Deklaro estas ĝenerala vortigo de politika gvidlinio, sed ĝi ne estas jure deviga. Ĝi ofte uziĝas rilate al la komuna politiko pri eksterlandaj rilatoj kaj sekureco (KERS). Deklaroj estas eldonitaj de la Prezidentejo de la Konsilio en la nomo de La Eŭropa Unio kaj, kiam necesa, en la nomo de la Prezidentejo.
akcepti ke monsumo estas perdita aŭ ŝuldo ne repagota; (metafore) opinii ion neatentinda, neutila (diversloke trovebla en tiu senco, sed ne registrita en NPIV)
malfermita, malkaŝema kaj regula dialogo
en:an open,transparent and regular dialogue
fr:un dialogue ouvert, transparent et régulier
Social dialogue is the term used to describe the consultation procedures involving the European social partners: the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE), the European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation (CEEP) and the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC).
It encompasses discussions, joint action and sometimes negotiations between the European social partners, and discussions between the social partners and the institutions of the European Union.
The dialogue was started by the European Commission in 1985, and Article 138 of the EC Treaty (as amended by the Single European Act) formally requires the Commission to develop it.
To date, fifteen joint opinions have been delivered on economic growth, the introduction of new technology, education, vocational training and other subjects. The social dialogue may also lead to contractual forms of relations, including agreements which are implemented by the Council or by the social partners themselves, on a proposal from the Commission. There have so far been five cross-industry framework agreements of this type, concerning parental leave, part-time work, temporary work, telework and stress.
With a view to giving new impetus to the European social dialogue, a Tripartite Social Summit for Growth and Employment was set up in March 2003. It consists of high-ranking officials from the Council Presidency and the Commission Presidency and representatives of the European social partners. It meets once per year, on the eve of the Spring European Council which debates the economic and social situation in the Union.
The role of the social partners and of independent social dialogue is enshrined, for the first time, in the European Constitution, which is in the process of being ratified.
Article I-48 states that the European Union recognises and promotes the role of the social partners, facilitating dialogue between them and respecting their autonomy. It also reiterates the role of the Tripartite Social Summit for Growth and Employment in contributing to the social dialogue.
Malpermeso de diskriminaciado/Principo de nediskriminaciado
fr:Principe de la non-discrimination
nl:Non-discriminatie (beginsel van…)
The aim of this principle is to ensure equality of treatment for individuals irrespective of nationality, sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.
Article 12 of the EC Treaty outlaws any discrimination on the grounds of nationality. Under the Treaty of Amsterdam a new Article 13 has been written into the EC Treaty to reinforce the guarantee of non-discrimination laid down in the Treaties and extend it to the other cases cited above.
As regards measures to combat discrimination, the European Constitution, currently in the process of being ratified, provides for the EU's powers to be extended to enable it to lay down the "basic principles" underpinning incentive measures in this field.
naciaj/membroŝtataj fakuloj disponigataj al la EU
en:national experts seconded to EU
fr:experts nationaux détachés auprès de l'UE
tradukenda: Experts nationaux détachés auprès de l’UE
Il s’agit de postes dits de "mise à disposition".
Ne peuvent donc postuler que les personnes dont l’employeur accepte de continuer à les rémunérer si leur candidature est retenue.
Unuiĝinta en sia diverseco
en:united in its diversity
fr:Unie dans sa diversité
The customs union is the essential element of the internal market. Its introduction was the primary objective after the signature of the Treaty of Rome and continued until 1968. The most important measures included:
Common procedures and rules were drawn up together with a Single Administrative Document (SAD) aimed at replacing the different documents previously used. With the entry into force of the single market in 1993, all routine checks at internal borders were abolished, as were customs formalities. Thus, the customs services of the Member States lost their responsibility for collecting excise duties, VAT and statistical data.
The Community has concluded special agreements to facilitate trade, for example the agreement with the European Economic Area (EEA), and to encourage development by providing preferential access to European markets, for example the Lomé Convention, signed with the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries (ACP).
Future challenges include promoting closer cooperation between the national administrations and combating fraud through the successive Customs 2002 and Customs 2007 programmes. A particular focus of Customs 2007 will be helping new Member States adapt their systems to open market conditions and implement customs controls at the new external borders of the European Union.
Eŭropa strategio pri dungado
en:European Employment Strategy (EES)
fr:Stratégie européenne pour l'emploi (SEE)
nl:Europese werkgelegenheidsstrategie (EWS)
de:Europäische Beschäftigungsstrategie (EBS)
Since the Treaty of Amsterdam added a new Title VIII on Employment to the Treaty establishing the European Community, coordination of Member States' employment policies has become a Community priority.
It was on the basis of these new provisions that the Luxembourg European Council, held in November 1997, launched the European Employment Strategy (EES), also known as the "Luxembourg process".
The EES is an annual programme of planning, monitoring, examination and readjustment of policies put in place by Member States to coordinate the instruments they use to tackle unemployment. The Strategy is based on four components:
In 2005 the Lisbon Strategy was revised in order to focus more closely on developing strong, sustainable growth and creating more and better jobs.
This re-launch of the Lisbon Strategy led to a thorough review of the EES, implementing the new process in July 2005, with the European Council's approval of the Integrated Guidelines for Growth and Jobs.
The European Employment Strategy is based on four components:
The Integrated Guidelines for Growth and Jobs will serve as a basis for the Community Lisbon Programme and the national action programmes.
Promoting a high level of employment has been one of the Community's objectives since the Treaty of Amsterdam came into force in May 1999 and added a Title VIII "Employment" to the Treaty establishing the European Community.
The Union's responsibilities with regard to employment are complementary to those of the Member States, the main aim being to create a European Employment Strategy (EES). The EES is intended as the main instrument to provide direction and coordinate the employment policy priorities supported by the Member States at European level.
The new Title VIII "Employment" also requires an Employment Committee with advisory status to be established, to facilitate the Union's task of promoting the coordination of national employment and labour market policies.
The Lisbon European Council (March 2000) considered that the overall aim of these measures was to raise the overall employment rate in the European Union to 70% and the female employment rate to more than 60% by 2010. The Stockholm European Council (March 2001) added two intermediate targets and one additional target:
The Barcelona Council (March 2002) called for the reinforcement of the European Employment Strategy as an instrument of the Lisbon Strategy.
Financial support for employment policy is provided through various instruments:
At European level, the main structures in the field of employment are:
Each Member State is responsible for the organisation of its education and training systems and the content of teaching programmes. In accordance with Article 149 of the EC Treaty, the Community's role is to contribute to the development of quality education by encouraging cooperation between Member States and, if necessary, by supporting and supplementing their action. The Community aims specifically to develop the European dimension in education and the exchange of information on issues common to education systems in the Member States.
It also aims to stimulate mobility and to promote cooperation at European and international levels. The European Union has at its disposal a number of specific tools which also aim to foster mutual understanding, the learning of foreign languages and the use of new technologies, while promoting the recognition of skills and qualifications, namely:
Education is part of the drive to achieve the goals of the Lisbon Strategy (to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world). In this context, the Commission has stepped up policy cooperation in the field of education, particularly through the open method of coordination.
eEurope (informada socio por ĉiuj)
La Eŭropa Komisiono lanĉis la eEurope-iniciaton en Decembro 1999, kaj la Eŭropa Konsilio de Lisbono aprobis ĝin en Marto 2000. La adoptita komuniko, nomita "eEurope - informsocio por ĉiuj", estas ero de la Lisbona Strategio kie oni decidis ke ekde 2010 la Eŭropa Unio fariĝu la plej konkurenca kaj vigla sciobanko en la mondo. La ĉefaj objektivoj de la iniciato estas la sekvaj:
Por atingi ĉion tion, la Komisiono adoptis la eEurope 2002 agplanon je majo 2000. La ĉefaj agoj celis stimuli pli malmultekostan, pli rapidan, pli sekuran Interreton, antaŭenigi homajn kaj financajn investojn kaj stimuli la uzon de Interreto.
La eEurope 2005 agplano postsekvis tiun de eEurope 2002. eEurope 2005 esence koncentriĝis pri deplojado de larĝbenda retkonekto je konkurencaj prezoj, pri retsekurado kaj pri vastigado de la uzo de informadiko ĉe la admistrado ("e-Adminstrado").
Lanĉita en Junio 2005, la "i2010" iniciato estas nova strategio de la Komisiono sur la tereno de la informsocio kaj la amaskomunikiloj. i2010 estas la unua iniciato de la Komisiono adoptita en la kunteksto de la reviziita Lisbona Strategio kaj de la partnerado por kresko kaj dungado.
Egalrajteco inter virinoj kaj viroj
en:Equal treatment for men and women
fr:Egalité de traitement entre les hommes et les femmes
nl:Gelijke behandeling van mannen en vrouwen
de:Gleichstellung von Frauen und Männern
? Egalrajtigo? Depende de la kunteksto
As early as 1957, the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community enshrined the principle of equality between men and women, with Article 141 requiring that they should receive equal pay for equivalent work. Since 1975 a series of directives have broadened the principle to cover access to employment, training and promotion, the aim being to eliminate all forms of discrimination at work, and later in social security, statutory schemes and occupational schemes.
In addition to the promotion of equal opportunities via multiannual programmes started in the 1980s, the Commission launched a Community strategy (2001-2005) to establish a framework of action within which all Community activities could contribute to the objective of abolishing inequalities and promoting equality between women and men.
The Treaty of Amsterdam sought to supplement Article 141 (which is limited in scope, covering only equal pay) by including the promotion of equality between men and women as one of the tasks of the Community set out in Article 2 of the EC Treaty. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, adopted in December 2000 and due to be incorporated in the European Constitution, which is being ratified, states that "Equality between men and women must be ensured in all areas, including employment, work and pay."
The Constitution adds the principle of equality between men and women to the values on which the Union is founded and identifies it as a general provision that the Union must take into account in all its actions.
la unia ministro pri eksteraj aferoj
en:the Union Ministerf or Foreign Affairs
fr:le ministre des Affaires étrangères de l’Union
The principle of Community institutional balance implies that each institution has to act in accordance with the powers conferred on it by the Treaties, in accordance with the division of powers. The principle itself is not set out in so many words in the Treaties but derives from a judgment by the Court of Justice of the European Communities (Meroni judgment of 1958). The principle of Community institutional balance thus prohibits any encroachment by one institution on the powers conferred on another. It is the Court's responsibility to ensure that this principle is respected.
The relationship between the European Commission, the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament is governed by the idea of the "institutional triangle". Their relationship and the powers conferred on them by the Treaties have changed radically over the years, particularly in the case of Parliament, whose influence has increased considerably. Despite the progress made by the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty of Amsterdam, there is still an imbalance between the legislative powers of the Council and those of Parliament, since legislative power is really shared by the two institutions only in the areas covered by codecision.
en:election with proportional representation
fr:élection à la proportionnelle
Eŭropo laŭ libera elekto
en:Europe 'à la carte'
This refers to the idea of a non-uniform method of integration which allows Member States to select policies as if from a menu and involve themselves fully in those policies; there would still be a minimum number of common objectives.
la eŭropaj parlamentaj elektoj
en:the European Parliamentary elections
fr:les élections parlementaires européennes
The aim of European energy policy is to develop a low-energy economy which is safer, more sustainable and more competitive.
To achieve this, the European Union (EU) will have to deal with a number of difficult issues:
The EU is aware of the importance of diversifying its range of energy sources, and is looking not only at fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil), but also at nuclear energy and renewable energy (solar, wind-power, biomass, geothermal, hydro-electric, tidal).
The presentation of a common energy policy in January 2007 placed energy back at the heart of the Community's action — the treaties creating the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC Treaty) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) in 1951 and 1957 respectively formed the basis for subsequent European integration.
The Treating establishing the European Community did not provide a specific legal basis for Community energy policy, the underlying principles of which are still based on the Euratom Treaty and on a number of provisions contained in the chapters on the internal market and the environment.
The Intelligent Energy - Europe programme, which comes under the framework programme for innovation and competitiveness (2007-2013), provides Community funding to help achieve the Union's objectives in the field of sustainable energy.
Enoficigo de la Eŭropa Komisiono
en:Confirmation of the European Commission
fr:Investiture de la Commission européenne
nl:Benoeming van de Europese Commissie
The confirmation procedure comprises two stages:
Since the Treaty of Nice, responsibility for nominating the President has rested with the Council, meeting in the composition of Heads of State or Government and acting by qualified majority. This nomination must be approved by the European Parliament.
The Council, acting by qualified majority and by common accord with the nominee for President, then adopts the list of the other persons it intends to appoint as Members of the Commission, drawn up in accordance with the proposals made by each Member State.
Finally, the President and the Members of the Commission are appointed by the Council, acting by qualified majority, after the entire body has been approved by Parliament.
The current Commission, which will took office in November 2004, was appointed under this procedure.
Malgrandaj kaj mezgrandaj entreprenoj
en:Small and medium-sized enterprises
fr:Petites et moyennes entreprises (PME)
nl:Kleine en middelgrote ondernemingen
de:Kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU)
At Community level, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are defined by a set of criteria concerning the workforce, turnover and independence of the business. In terms of the workforce alone, a micro-enterprise has fewer than 10 employees, a small enterprise fewer than 50 and a medium-sized enterprise fewer than 250. The European Union has specifically defined SMEs so that the benefits introduced for their support are reserved for those businesses which genuinely have the characteristics of such firms.
Small and medium-sized enterprises account for more than 90% of all European enterprises and are at the very heart of the European economy. In line with the slogan "think small first" from the European Charter for Small Enterprises (2000), the Union is setting up a number of SME support measures (access to funding, taxation, research, information and communication technology, etc.) It has also established a single, coherent policy framework for these various measures, with the aim of realising the untapped potential of SMEs for growth and job creation within the Union.
To ensure that the specific interests and needs of SMEs are taken more fully into account in European policies, a representative of the SMEs acts as a link between them and the European Commission.
While the Union encourages using the Community definition of SMEs as a reference, it is binding only for certain matters, such as state aid, implementing structural funds or Community programmes.
Esplorado kaj evoluigo
en:Research and development
fr:Recherche et développement
nl:Onderzoek en ontwikkeling
de:Forschung und Entwicklung
Research and development policy is one of the European Union's priorities, at the heart of the Lisbon Strategy to boost employment and growth in Europe. Research, with education and innovation, forms the "knowledge triangle", which it is hoped will allow Europe to maintain its economic dynamism and social model. The Seventh Framework Programme for Research (2007–2013) seeks to consolidate the European Research Area (ERA) and stimulate the national investment needed to reach the target of 3% of GDP.
Moreover, the creation of a European Institute of Technology by 2009 should enable European excellence to fully take shape.
Coordination of research and development initiatives within the Community is based on various instruments:
European research and development policy is based on provisions in the three founding treaties (ECSC, Euratom and Title XVIII of the EC Treaty). The Single European Act introduced the concept of technology into Community law and the Treaty on European Union (EU Treaty) then developed the Community's objectives in this field.
Screening, or analytical examination of the acquis, is the stage preparatory to accession negotiations. It is vital since it forms the basis for the bilateral negotiations between the European Union and the various candidate countries.
The screening process is carried out jointly by the Commission and each of the candidate countries, allowing the latter to familiarise themselves with the acquis and demonstrate their capacity to put it into effect.
A further purpose of screening is to identify those areas of the acquis in which progress is needed if the candidate countries' legislation is to be compatible with the Community rules. These areas are divided into chapters, which are negotiated individually.
A screening exercise may be carried out during the accession negotiations if the acquis has to be updated.
Rural development is the second pillar of the common agricultural policy (CAP). It is in line with the Lisbon objective on competitiveness and the Gothenburg objective on sustainability and focuses on four fundamental areas:
Competitiveness is to be improved through measures targeting human and physical capital and food products, including quality production. Measures to protect natural resources and improve high nature value farming and forestry systems and cultural landscapes are being introduced. The quality of life in rural areas is being improved by encouraging the diversification of economic activities and the development of local infrastructure. Finally, the Leader initiative promotes diversification of the economic activities of rural areas through innovative, integrated local development schemes with an emphasis on participation.
Rural development policy has its own integrated financing and programming arrangements. The Council has drawn up a strategic approach for the 2007-2013 period, which will be translated into national strategic plans. As of 1 January 2007 all the measures will be financed by a single fund: the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD).
(depende de la kunteksto)
The concept of sustainable development refers to a form of development that meets present-day needs without compromising the ability of future generations to satisfy their own requirements. It aims to improve individuals' living conditions whilst preserving their environment in the short, medium and -- above all -- long term. The objective of sustainable development is threefold: development that is economically efficient, socially fair and environmentally sustainable.
In May 2001, an EU strategy in favour of sustainable development was adopted and in 2005 it was revised to give it new impetus. The global partnership for sustainable development, adopted by the Commission in 2002, gave it an external dimension.
The inclusion of environmental issues in the definition and implementation of other policies is essential for achieving the objective of sustainable development. This principle was confirmed in the Treaty of Maastricht and in the Cardiff Summit in 1998 and formed the cornerstone for coordinated action at Community level for the integration of environmental issues.
To promote sustainable development, the public authorities must take appropriate measures to limit the damaging effects of transport and the risks to health, improve the management of natural resources, in particular their consumption, and combat social exclusion and poverty in Europe and the rest of the world. They must also take measures to counter climate change and limit its consequences.
The European Union and its Member States are taking action to promote sustainable development not only within the Union but also beyond its borders, mainly through international bodies and at meetings such as the World Summit on Sustainable Development, which toThe concept of sustainable development refers to a form of development that meets present-day needs without compromising the ability of future generations to satisfy their own requirements. It aims to improve individuals' living conditions whilst preserving their environment in the short, medium and -- above all -- long term. The objective of sustainable development is threefold: development which is economically efficient, socially fair and environmentally sustainable.
In May 2001, an EU strategy in favour of sustainable development was adopted and in 2005 it was revised to give it new impetus. The global partnership for sustainable development, adopted by the Commission in 2002, gave it an external dimension.
The inclusion of environmental issues in the definition and implementation of other policies is essential for achieving the objective of sustainable development. This principle was confirmed in the Treaty of Maastricht and in the Cardiff Summit in 1998 and formed the cornerstone for coordinated action at Community level for the integration of environmental issues.
To promote sustainable development, the public authorities must take appropriate measures to limit the damaging effects of transport and the risks to health, improve the management of natural resources, in particular their consumption, and combat social exclusion and poverty in Europe and the rest of the world. They must also take measures to counter climate change and limit its consequences.
The European Union and its Member States are taking action to promote sustainable development not only within the Union but also beyond its borders, mainly through international bodies and at meetings such as the World Summit on Sustainable Development, which took place in Johannesburg in August-September 2002.
Eŭropa evoluiga fondaĵo (fonduso?)
en:European Development Fund
fr:Fonds européen de développement
Created by the Treaty of Rome in 1957, the European Development Fund (EDF) is the main instrument providing Community aid for development cooperation with the countries of Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP countries) and with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs).
The EDF finances any projects or programmes which contribute to the economic, social or cultural development of the countries in question. It consists of several instruments, including grants, risk capital and loans to the private sector.
The EDF is funded by the Member States and does not yet come under the general Community budget. However, the aid granted to OCTs is to be included in the European Union's general budget as of 1 January 2008, while the aid granted to ACP countries will continue to be funded by the EDF, at least for the period 2008-2013.
Each EDF, which generally follows the cycle of the partnership agreements, is concluded for a period of around five years. The ninth EDF (2000-2007) has been allocated 13.5 billion euros, in addition to 9.9 billion euros left over from the previous EDFs. The European Investment Bank's own resources contribution adds a further 1.7 billion euros over the period covered by the ninth EDF.
Strukturfonduso kaj koherofonduso
en:Structural Funds and Cohesion Fund
fr:Fonds structurels et Fonds de cohésion
nl:Structuurfondsen en Cohesiefonds
de:Strukturfonds und Kohäsionsfonds
The Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund are the financial instruments of European Union (EU) regional policy, which is intended to narrow the development disparities among regions and Member States. The Funds participate fully, therefore, in pursuing the goal of economic, social and territorial cohesion.
For the period 2007-2013, the budget allocated to regional policy amounts to around € 348 billion, comprising € 278 billion for the Structural Funds and € 70 billion for the Cohesion Fund. This represents 35% of the Community budget and is the second largest budget item.
There are two Structural Funds:
In order to speed up economic, social and territorial convergence, the European Union set up a Cohesion Fund in 1994. It is intended for countries whose per capita GDP is below 90% of the Community average. The purpose of the Cohesion Fund is to grant financing to environment and transport infrastructure projects. However, aid under the Cohesion Fund is subject to certain conditions. If the public deficit of a beneficiary Member State exceeds 3% of national GDP (EMU convergence criteria), no new project will be approved until the deficit has been brought under control.
These Funds will be used to finance regional policy between 2007 and 2013 in the framework of the three new objectives, namely:
Structural Fund and Cohesion Fund support for the three objectives always involves co-financing. The rates of co-financing may be reduced in accordance with the "polluter pays" principle or where a project generates income. All projects must of course comply with EU legislation, particularly with regard to competition, the environment and public procurement.
(PIV, dua senco)
A concentration is the legal combination of two or more undertakings, by merger or acquisition. While such operations may have a positive impact on the market, they may also appreciably restrict competition, by creating or strengthening a dominant player.
In order to preclude restrictions of competition, the European Commission exercises control over planned concentrations with a Community dimension (i.e. when the operation extends beyond the borders of a Member State and exceeds certain worldwide and Community-wide turnover thresholds) and may authorise them subject to conditions or forbid them.
In determining whether a concentration is compatible with the common market, the Commission takes account on a case-by-case basis of several factors, such as the concepts of "Community dimension", "dominant position", "effective competition" and "relevant market". The basic criterion used to analyse concentrations is that of a "dominant position". One or more undertakings are said to hold a dominant position if they have the economic power to influence the parameters of competition, especially prices, production, product quality, distribution and innovation, and to limit competition to an appreciable extent.
Regulation (EC) No 139/2004, which entered into force on 1 May 2004, radically recast the Community rules for control of concentrations.
Galileo (la Eŭropa navigada sistemo)
Galileo is the name of the European satellite navigation system which has been under development by the European Union and the European Space Agency (ESA) since 2002. It should be operational from 2008 onwards. Galileo is intended to ensure the fluidity, effectiveness and safety of transport in Europe. Given its many applications, it may also be useful to other sectors of activity.
Galileo will strengthen Europe's scientific identity and develop the Union's independence in the strategic field of satellite positioning. It is thus a genuine alternative to the creation of a de facto monopoly for the American GPS system. Nonetheless, Galileo will be compatible with the GPS system, as well as the Russian radio navigation system Glonass.
Galileo will allow users equipped with a receiver to determine their position with great accuracy in real time. The programme comprises 30 satellites to be placed in orbit from 2006 onwards and ground stations to relay the signals to the users.
Among the other sectors which may benefit from applications of the Galileo programme are: the social services (assistance for the disabled and the elderly), justice and customs (border controls), search and rescue (navigation at sea and in mountainous terrain) and agriculture (precise management of large agricultural areas).
la Oficiala Gazeto de la Eŭropa Unio
en:the Official Journal of the European Union
fr: Journal officiel de l’Union européenne
Eŭropo "kun variigebla geometrio"
fr:Europe 'à géométrie variable'
nl:Europa "met variabele geometrie"
'Variable-geometry' Europe is the term used to describe the idea of a method of differentiated integration which acknowledges that there are irreconcilable differences within the integration structure and therefore allows for a permanent separation between a group of Member States and a number of less developed integration units.
Globalaj gvidilinioj por la ekonomia politiko
en:Broad economic policy guidelines (BEPG)
fr:Grandes orientations des politiques économiques (GOPE)
nl:Globale richtsnoeren voor het economisch beleid (GREB)
The broad economic policy guidelines (BEPG), which take the form of a Council recommendation, are the central link in coordination of the Member States' economic policies. They ensure multilateral surveillance of economic trends in the Member States. Since 2003, the BEPG have been published for a period of three consecutive years.
Their legal basis is Article 99 of the Treaty establishing the European Community. The Council, acting by a qualified majority on a recommendation from the Commission, produces a draft for the BEPG and reports its findings to the European Council, which adopts a conclusion. On the basis of this conclusion, the Council, acting by a qualified majority, adopts a recommendation setting out these broad guidelines. The European Parliament is informed of this recommendation.
rekoni al iu ties atingon de scienca grado (habilitiĝitroviĝas en Angla-Esperanta-Hungara etvortaro pri Lernado kaj Laboro,Koutny, 2002)
Imposta harmoniigo Iniciativa
Tax harmonisation consists in coordinating the taxation systems of the European countries to avoid non-concerted and competing changes in national fiscal policies, which could have an adverse effect on the internal market.
Full tax harmonisation covering 25 countries is a difficult undertaking, since this area remains largely the prerogative of the Member States. However, a minimum degree of harmonisation has been achieved, e.g. with the common bands of value added tax, which require a minimum VAT rate of 15% on all products (apart from exemptions and special authorisations).
The last enlargement greatly increased tax disparities within the Union. At the same time, adoption of the single currency in 12 European countries has made it necessary to establish genuinely common rates of VAT and common rules for business taxation in the Union.
Since 1997, the Member States have been conducting a wide-ranging debate on the scope for coordinated action to try to control the negative effects of tax competition. This has centred on three areas: company taxation, taxation of savings income and taxation of royalty payments between companies.
With the "fiscal package" to combat harmful tax competition, the Council adopted:
Antaŭaliĝa helpo/ subteno
fr:Aide de préadhésion
Pre-accession assistance helps the countries that are candidates for membership of the European Union to satisfy the accession conditions (the Copenhagen criteria). Considerable investment is required if the candidate countries are to bring their institutions and standards in line with the Community acquis and to be able to meet their obligations as Member States.
Pre-accession assistance to the candidate countries is a key factor in the Union's pre-accession strategy and is determined by the accession partnerships.
For the period 2007 – 2013, the Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) will be the sole funding vehicle, replacing the pre-accession instruments from the period 2000 – 2006 (Phare, Sapard for structural measures in agriculture, Ispa for infrastructure development in the fields of the environment and transport, the special pre-accession instrument for Turkey), as well as the CARDS programme for the Western Balkan countries.
The IPA is made up of five components: support for transition and institution-building, cross-border cooperation, regional development, human resources development and rural development. The first three components concern the candidate countries and the potential candidate countries. However, the last three components concern the candidate countries only, with the aim of preparing them for adopting and implementing the cohesion policy and managing the Structural Funds.
The European Investment Bank (EIB) and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) also provide cofunding for the candidate countries.
Once they join the Union, the new Member States, which are no longer entitled to pre-accession assistance, receive temporary financial assistance, the Transitional Facility, provided for by the treaty of accession.
fr:Aide au développement
The beginnings of the European Community's development policy coincided with the signature of the Treaty of Rome in 1957, and the Member States' overseas countries and territories were its first beneficiaries. However, it is only since the entry into force of the Treaty on European Union (the Maastricht Treaty, 1993) that this policy has enjoyed a specific legal basis (Articles 177 to 181 of the EC Treaty). With the successive enlargements of the Union, cooperation has gradually extended to other countries, such as the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries (ACP) which have a particularly close and long-standing relationship with certain Member States. The Cotonou Agreement, signed in June 2000 and revised in June 2005, has strengthened this partnership, which is to a large extent based on the various Lomé Conventions, the first of which was signed in 1975.
In addition to these initial agreements, other countries also benefit from the Community's development policy, such as the countries of Latin America and Asia.
The main objective of the European Community's development policy is to eradicate poverty. This policy is implemented not only through bilateral and regional agreements but also through specific programmes in certain sectors such as health and education. The development policy also entails cooperation with international institutions and the participation of the Community and Member States in initiatives implemented at global level such as the Initiative for Highly Indebted Poor Countries.
Today, the Union is the main trading partner of developing countries and the main contributor to development aid. The European Community and its Member States together provide 55% of international development aid.
Programo de komunuma helpo al landoj de centra kaj orienta Eŭropo
en:Programme of Community aid to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Phare)
fr:Programme d'aide communautaire aux pays d'Europe centrale et orientale (Phare)
nl:Programma voor bijstand aan de Midden- en Oost-Europese landen (Phare)
de:Phare (Gemeinschaftliches Hilfsprogramm für Länder in Mittel-und Osteuropa)
PHARE is the main vehicle for pre-accession assistance to EU candidate countries. The main aim of this programme is to support the candidate countries in the process of adopting and implementing the acquis and to prepare them for managing the Structural Funds. With this in mind, it focuses on two priorities:
Launched in 1989 to support the reconstruction of the economies of Poland and Hungary, the PHARE programme was gradually extended to include all countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Since 1994, PHARE's tasks have been adapted according to the priorities and needs of each candidate country.
For the period 2000-2006, the PHARE programme has a budget of more than EUR 10 billion (approximately EUR 1.56 billion per year). Two further programmes were introduced in 2000: ISPA for transport and the environment, and SAPARD for agriculture.
For the period 2007-2013, the instrument for pre-accession assistance (IPA) is the only financial instrument for EU candidate countries and replaces all existing forms of pre-accession assistance, including the PHARE programme.
The European Union as a whole (the Commission and the Member States) is currently one of the largest donors of humanitarian aid in the world.
The humanitarian aid dimension of the European Union's external action has become very important in recent years owing to the increase in the number of crises throughout the world and the Union's willingness to take on a leading role in international humanitarian efforts.
Therefore, in 1992, the European Commission's Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) was established. ECHO's mandate is to provide emergency assistance and relief (in the form of goods and services) to victims of natural or man-made disasters or conflicts outside the Union. This aid is based on the principles of non-discrimination, impartiality and humanity. It is distributed by ECHO's partners, namely non-governmental organisations, humanitarian agencies of the United Nations and other international organisations.
The Constitution, now being ratified, includes a section on humanitarian aid, which thereby acquires a specific legal basis. The issue's importance is further underlined by the planned creation of a European Voluntary Humanitarian Aid Corps, which is aimed at providing a framework for joint contributions by young Europeans in this area.
Hierarkio de la komunuma aktaro;
hierarkio de la normoj
en:Hierarchy of Community acts (hierarchy of norms)
fr:Hiérarchie des actes communautaires (hiérarchie des normes)
nl:Hiërarchie tussen de communautaire besluiten(voorschriftenhiërarchie)
de:Hierarchie der gemeinschaftlichen Rechtsakte (Normenhierarchie)
A declaration annexed to the Treaty on European Union states that it might be possible to review the classification of Community acts with a view to establishing an appropriate hierarchy between the different categories of act.
The main purpose of such a hierarchy would be to enable the lawmaking authority to concentrate on policy aspects of particular issues rather than on questions of detail. It would dictate the shape of the Community decision-making process by ensuring that instruments of constitutional status were subject to more restrictive procedures (such as adoption by unanimous vote, reinforced qualified majority, and assent) than legislative instruments, which are themselves subject to less flexible procedures (for example, the codecision procedure) than implementing instruments (for instance, the institutionalised delegation of powers to the Commission).
The subject was addressed in 1990 in the early discussions on the possibility of incorporating the codecision procedure into the Treaty. The underlying idea was to avoid an over-rigorous procedure being applied to certain acts of secondary importance and thereby prevent the legislative machinery becoming congested. In 1991, during the negotiations on the Treaty of Maastricht, the Commission proposed introducing a hierarchy of norms and a new system for classifying Community instruments (treaties, laws, secondary or implementing acts), but failed to overcome the problems posed by the different national legal traditions.
The European Constitution currently being ratified provides for simplification of this hierarchy of norms. It establishes three categories of instrument, governed by different decision-making procedures:
The Constitution also provides for general use of the codecision procedure, which would become the ordinary legislative procedure for adopting European laws and framework laws.
En Junio 2005, la Eŭropa Komisiono prezentis novan strategian planon por informsocio kaj amaskomunikilaro: i2010, Eŭropa InformSocio por 2010.
i2010 havas tri prioritatojn:
i2010 estas la unua iniciato kiun faris la Komisiono post la Lisbona novigita partnerado por kresko kaj dungado. Tiu strategio sekvas la du agplanojn, eEurope 2002 kaj eEurope 2005, kiuj difinis la paŝojn necesajn por antaŭenigi IKikon
Eŭropa sekureca kaj defenda identeco
en:European security and defence identity
fr:Identité européenne de sécurité et de défense
nl:Europese veiligheids- en defensie-identiteit
de:Europäische Sicherheits- und Verteidigungsidentität
The military intervention of NATO in Bosnia highlighted an imbalance in terms of risk linked to the fact that, broadly speaking, the European forces were operating on the ground whereas the US forces intervened in the air, and were less at risk.
The Clinton administration recognised that there could be crises within Europe in which the United States would not wish to intervene. It was therefore in favour of the idea of creating a kind of European pillar within NATO -- in other words, a European security and defence identity.
Against this background, the NATO Council held in Brussels in January 1994 recognised the importance of defining a specifically European identity in relation to security and defence. The first steps towards this were taken at the NATO Council held in Berlin on 3 June 1996.
Since then, the European Union has set up its own permanent political and military structures for the political control and strategic management of crises. In December 2002, within the framework of the permanent arrangements for EU-NATO cooperation and consultation known as "Berlin Plus", the Union and NATO signed a strategic partnership agreement on crisis management. Through this agreement, the Union will have access with immediate effect to NATO's logistical and planning resources, including intelligence.
Despite the introduction of a single market and economic and monetary union, there is still no genuine Community policy on taxation. Specific provisions are laid down in Articles 90 to 93 of the EC Treaty, but the decision-making procedure for taxation requires a unanimous vote in the Council. Up to now this has acted as a brake on the adoption of common rules for direct and indirect taxation. In order to avoid these obstacles, the Commission now encourages the use of the "closer cooperation" procedure introduced by the Treaty of Amsterdam and developed by the Treaty of Nice. This procedure enables the Commission to propose that a group of at least eight Member States may cooperate on a given matter after receiving the approval of the Council acting by qualified majority. It also encourages the Member States to adopt recommendations aimed at eliminating harmful tax obstacles, rather than binding legislative proposals.
Border controls on VAT were abolished with the introduction of the single market in 1993. Today, products are taxed in the country of purchase but eventually, when the final VAT system has been decided by the Council, they will be taxed in the country of origin. Furthermore, VAT and excise rates have been brought into closer alignment in the different Member States.
The adoption of the single currency is making it increasingly urgent to establish truly common rates of VAT and common rules for corporate taxation in the European Union. As part of a tax package aimed at countering harmful tax competition, the Council has adopted:
Various Commission proposals are currently being scrutinised by the Council, notably the reform of the common VAT system, the revision of the common system of taxation applicable to mergers, divisions, transfers of assets and exchanges of shares concerning companies of different Member States and the revision of the Community framework on charging for the use of transport infrastructure ("Eurovignette" Directive).
la Unio ne influas...
en:the Union does not prejudice ...
fr:l’Union ne préjuge pas de...
en: The Union respects and does not prejudice the status under national law of churches and religious associations or communities in the Member States.
fr:L'Union respecte et ne préjuge pas du statut dont bénéficient, en vertu du droit national, les églises et les associations ou communautés religieuses dans les États membres.
en:the common security and defence policy of the Union does not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States;
fr:la politique de sécurité et de défense commune de l'Union n'affecte pas le caractère spécifique de la politique de sécurité et de défense de certains États membres;
Inform(ad)a socio/informadilaro? informteknikaro?
fr:Société de l'information
The information society is synonymous with what is meant by "new information and communication technologies" (ICT). Since the beginning of the 90s, the new ICT have been booming. The universal use of electronic exchanges of information, convergence towards digital technologies, the exponential growth of the Internet and the opening up of telecommunications markets are all signs of this change.
The information society is revolutionising many areas of everyday life, particularly access to training and knowledge (distance learning, e-learning related services), work organisation and mobilisation of skills (teleworking, virtual companies), practical life (e-health services) and leisure. It is also providing new opportunities in terms of participation of citizens by making it easier to express opinions and points of view. However, these positive advances go hand-in-hand with new concerns: mass use of the Internet means that steps have to be taken against new criminal behaviour, pirating, and questions of protection of personal data and intellectual property. Moreover, the information society may contribute to the marginalisation of certain sections of society by emphasising social inequalities.
In the light of these potential benefits and threats, the European Union has placed the information society at the heart of its strategy for the 21st century. Among other things it has launched a series of support and promotion actions (eEurope action plan) and adopted measures aimed at controlling and limiting the risks associated with the development of the information society such as an action plan aimed at promoting safe use of the Internet and combating unlawful and harmful messages.
minimume unu miliono da civitanoj povas iniciati
en:no less than one million citizens may invite
fr:sur initiative d’au moins un million de citoyens
La Membroŝtatoj havas rajton je iniciato
en:Member States shall have a right of initiative
fr: les États membres disposent d’un droit d’initiative
The European institutions are the political bodies created by the Treaty of Rome to build a united Europe.
Article 7 of the Treaty establishing the European Community lists five European institutions in the strict sense of the term:
Article 3 of the Treaty on European Union provides that the institutions shall operate within a single institutional framework. This means that they act within the decisional process of the three pillars.
They interact with other players such as the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions, the European Central Bank, the European Investment Bank, the European Ombudsman and the Community agencies, thus forming the European institutional system.
The European Constitution now being ratified provides that the Union's "institutional framework" shall comprise the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers (known as "the Council"), the European Commission, the Court of Justice and the European Council, which would thus acquire the status of a European institution.
Interkonsento pri sociala politiko
en:Social Policy Agreement
nl:Overeenkomst betreffende de sociale politiek
de:Abkommen über die Sozialpolitik
The Social Policy Agreement was signed by 11 of the Member States in December 1991. The United Kingdom opted out. It sets out the policy objectives for which the 1989 Social Charter paved the way: promoting employment, improving living and working conditions, combating exclusion, developing human resources, etc. It also lays down the procedure for adopting social policy measures and acknowledges the vital part played by management and labour in this field.
When it was signed, this Social Policy Agreement was annexed to the Social Policy Protocol, the mechanism by which the United Kingdom allowed the other Member States to advance on the social policy front without taking part itself.
Following the election of a new government in May 1997, the United Kingdom announced that it intended to drop its opt-out. The Social Policy Agreement was then incorporated into the Social Chapter of the EC Treaty through the Treaty of Amsterdam. This also involved the formal abolition of the Social Policy Protocol.
Accession negotiations are vital for monitoring and helping candidate countries to prepare for accession and for assessing how ready they are. Each country is judged on its own merits from the point of view of compliance with the accession criteria. Negotiations help candidate countries to prepare to fulfil the obligations of European Union membership. They also allow the Union to prepare itself for enlargement in terms of absorption capacity.
Negotiations relate to the adoption and implementation of the Community acquis, which is monitored by the Commission. The acquisis divided into chapters, and there are as many chapters as areas in which progress must be made. These areas are identified by screening theacquis. The Technical Assistance and Information Exchange programme (TAIEX) plays a part here. Each chapter is negotiated individually, and measurable reference criteria are defined for the opening and closing of each chapter.
Negotiations take place at bilateral intergovernmental conferences between the Member States and the candidate country. Common negotiating positions are defined for each of the chapters relating to matters of Community competence.
The results of the negotiations (with the outcome of political and economic dialogues) are incorporated into a draft accession treaty, once the negotiations on all chapters are closed. Where appropriate, the system of transitional measures allows negotiations to be concluded even if transposal of the acquis has not been completed.
The fifth indent of Article 149(2) of the Treaty establishing the European Community (ECT) states that Community action is aimed at "encouraging the development of youth exchanges and exchanges of socio-educational instructors".
Responsibility for youth affairs rests with the Member States, and action by the Union is essentially initiated by the Council, primarily through recommendations and programmes designed to develop cooperation and mobility at Union level. Such action is guided by the open method of coordination.
The 2001 White Paper on a new impetus for European youth marked a new stage in Union action. It essentially proposed that cooperation between Member States should be enhanced and that more account should be taken of the youth dimension in sectoral policies. Following up the White Paper, the European Youth Pact adopted in March 2005 identifies the fields in which consolidation is required, also with a view to achieving the Lisbon strategy objectives and strengthening education and training. The Pact puts the emphasis on improving the education, training, mobility, vocational integration and social inclusion of young Europeans, while helping to reconcile work and family life.
Going beyond this general framework for action, the Union is able to call on specific instruments to promote cooperation, thanks to the “Youth in Action” programme for the period 2007-13. This programme is designed to encourage young people, especially the most disadvantaged and the disabled, to participate in public life, and also to promote their sense of initiative, entrepreneurial spirit and creativity. In this way it boosts the mobility of disadvantaged young people in an informal education setting, and also, through the European Voluntary Service (EVS), fosters involvement in projects within associations and local communities, both in Europe and in developing countries, thus promoting mutual understanding.
Firmigo de juraj tekstoj
en:Consolidation of legislation - informal/declaratory
fr:Consolidation des textes législatifs
nl:Consolidatie van wetteksten
There is a special procedure for unofficial, purely declaratory consolidation of legislation and simplification of legal instruments. The incorporation of subsequent amendments into the body of a basic act does not entail the adoption of a new instrument. It is simply a clarification exercise conducted by the Commission. The resulting text, which has no formal legal effect, can, where appropriate, be published in the Official Journal (C Series) without citations or recitals.
Komunumaj juraj instrumentoj
en:Community legal instruments
fr:Instruments juridiques communautaires
The term Community legal instruments refers to the instruments available to the Community institutions to carry out their tasks under the Treaty establishing the European Community with due respect for the subsidiarity principle. They are:
In addition to these instruments listed in Article 249 of the EC Treaty, practice has led to the development of a whole series of sui generis documents: interinstitutional agreements, resolutions, conclusions, communications, green papers and white papers.
Moreover, under the second and third pillars, specific legal instruments are used, such as strategies, joint action and common positions in the area of the CFSP, and decisions, framework decisions, joint positions and conventions in the area of JHA. The Constitution, which is in the process of being ratified, provides for a simpler typology of Community instruments:
Firmigo de juraj tekstoj
en:Consolidation of legislation - formal/official
fr:Codification des textes législatifs
nl:Codificatie van wetgevingsteksten
de:Kodifikation der Rechtsvorschriften
Formal or official consolidation of legislation involves adopting a new legal instrument, published in the Official Journal (L series), which incorporates and repeals the instruments being consolidated (basic instrument + amending instrument(s)) without altering their substance. It can be:
ŝtato regata laŭ juro
en:rule of law; law state; a state governed by law
fr:état de droit
Komunuma juro/ leĝaro?
Strictly speaking, Community law consists of the founding Treaties (primary legislation) and the provisions of instruments enacted by the Community institutions by virtue of them (secondary legislation - regulations, directives, etc.). Once the European Constitution has been adopted, it will replace the current set of founding Treaties. Primary Community law will consist of the Constitution and its Protocols - including the Charter of Fundamental Rights, which is incorporated in it - and the Euratom Treaty.
In a broader sense, Community law encompasses all the rules of the Community legal order, including general principles of law, the case law of the Court of Justice, law flowing from the Community's external relations and supplementary law contained in conventions and similar agreements concluded between the Member States to give effect to Treaty provisions.
All these rules of law form part of what is known as the Community acquis.
unuaeco de juro;
aferoj rilataj al ŝtato regata laŭ juro
en:primacy of law; matters pertaining to a state governed by law
fr:prééminence du droit; primauté de droit
Eŭropa justica reto pri krimaferoj
en:European Judicial Network in criminal matters (EJN)
fr:European Judicial Network in criminal matters (EJN)
nl:Europees justitieel netwerk in strafzaken (EJN)
The purpose of the European Judicial Network (EJN) in criminal matters is to facilitate mutual judicial assistance in the fight against transnational crime. It originates in a Joint Action adopted by the Council on 29 June 1998.
The judicial network is made up of contact points designed to enable local judicial authorities and judicial authorities in the other Member States to establish direct contacts between themselves. These contact points also provide the legal or practical information necessary to help the authorities concerned to prepare an effective request for judicial cooperation.
There is also a European Judicial Network in civil and commercial matters, established by Council Decision of 28 May 2001 and based on the network in criminal matters.
The European Constitution, currently being ratified, heralds a new stage in the development of a "judicial Europe" by providing for the adoption of laws and framework laws designed to encourage support for the training of the judiciary.
kadre de la agadrajtoj atribuitaj al ĝi;
kadre de siaj rajtigoj
en:within the limits of the powersconferred on it
fr:dans les limites desattributions qui lui sont conférées
la plurjara financa kadro
en:the multiannual financialframework
fr:le cadre financier pluriannuel
Reglamentara kadro por kemiaĵoj
en:REACH (regulatory framework for chemicals)
fr:REACH : cadre réglementaire pour les produits chimiques
nl:Reach: regelgevingskader voor chemische stoffen
de:REACH: Rechtsrahmen für chemische Stoffe
The "REACH" system establishes a single regulatory framework for the registration, evaluation and authorisation of chemicals. The aim is to ensure greater safety in the manufacture and use of chemical substances.
REACH will require operators to gather full information on the properties of substances of which they manufacture or import at least one tonne per year and to demonstrate safety of use. Previous legislation required the authorities of the Member States to prove the existence of a risk in order to ban a substance. This reversal of the burden of proof allows the procedure to be more effective.
This information must then be sent to the European Chemicals Agency created for the purpose. The Agency, located in Helsinki, will manage registration of the substances by setting up a database. Unregistered substances may not be manufactured in the European Union or imported into the EU market.
The authorities of the Member States assess the registration dossiers and the substances giving cause for concern. They are also responsible for granting or refusing authorisations for substances posing a risk to health or the environment. Restrictions remain possible for certain dangerous substances, but the procedure will henceforth be simpler.
Adopted at the end of 2006, the REACH system replaces 40 previous legislative acts. Under the previous legislation, chemicals placed on the market before 1981 (nearly 99% of those now in circulation) were not subject to testing. Moreover, since it was unduly slow, the previous procedure penalised innovation and the replacement of substances available on the market.
en:Single institutional framework
fr:Cadre institutionnel unique
nl:Institutioneel kader (één)
de:Einheitlicher institutioneller Rahmen
The single institutional framework (Article 3 of the Treaty on European Union) is the practical expression of the principle that there is only one set of institutions. This implies that the institutions serving the Union and the Community are the same. These institutions thus play a part in the decision-making process for the various pillars.
The existence of a single set of institutions is one of the means used by the authors of the Treaties to ensure coherence between the action of the Union and that of the Community.
"Hard core" refers to a limited group of countries able and willing to develop 'closer cooperation'.
This concept found practical expression in the implementation of the Schengen area, which enabled a group of Member States to progressively curtail border checks and to establish freedom of movement for persons. This hard core was initially set up outside the EU's institutional framework, but was eventually integrated into the treaties through its incorporation into the Amsterdam Treaty.
The Amsterdam Treaty formally adopted the use of the hard core concept through its introduction of the 'closer cooperation' mechanism. 'Closer cooperation' enables a certain number of Member States to further the construction of Europe within the EU's institutional framework.
Klasifiko de la elspezoj
en:Classification of expenditure
fr:Classification des dépenses
nl:Classificatie van de uitgaven
This refers to the distinction made between Union expenditure of which the underlying principle and the amount are legally determined by the treaties, secondary legislation, conventions, international treaties or private contracts ("compulsory" expenditure) and expenditure for which the budgetary authority is free to decide the amount as it sees fit ("non-compulsory" expenditure). The question of whether expenditure is to be considered compulsory or non-compulsory generates friction between the two arms of the budgetary authority - the Council and the European Parliament - as Parliament has the final say in determining the amount of expenditure only where it is non-compulsory.
The European Constitution currently being ratified provides for ending the distinction between compulsory and non-compulsory expenditure. Unifying expenditure in this way will have two effects: Parliament will be able to influence the entire budget, but it will lose the final say that enables it to impose its will on the Council regarding non-compulsory expenditure.
fr:Clause de suspension
The suspension clause was written into the EU Treaty (Article 7) by the Treaty of Amsterdam. Under this clause, some of a Member State's rights (e.g. its voting rights in the Council) may be suspended if it seriously and persistently breaches the principles on which the Union is founded (liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law). But its obligations would still be binding.
The Treaty of Nice added a preventive mechanism to this procedure. On a proposal by one third of the Member States, by the Commission or by the European Parliament, the Council, acting by a majority of four fifths of its members after obtaining the assent of the European Parliament, may determine that there is a clear risk of a serious breach of these fundamental principles by a Member State, and address appropriate recommendations to it.
Ekonomia, sociala kaj teritoria kohero
en:Economic, social and territorial cohesion
fr:Cohésion économique, sociale et territoriale
nl:Economische, sociale en territoriale samenhang
de:Wirtschaftlicher, sozialer und territorialer Zusammenhalt
Economic and social cohesion is an expression of solidarity between the Member States and regions of the European Union. The aim is balanced development throughout the EU, reducing structural disparities between regions and promoting equal opportunities for all. In practical terms, this is achieved by means of a variety of financing operations, principally through the Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund. Every three years the European Commission presents a report on progress made in achieving economic and social cohesion and on how Community policies have contributed to it.
At European level, the origins of economic and social cohesion go back to the Treaty of Rome (1957) where a reference is made in the preamble to reducing regional disparities. In the 1970s, Community action was taken to coordinate the national instruments and provide additional financial resources. Subsequently these measures proved inadequate given the situation in the Community, where the establishment of the internal market, contrary to forecasts, had failed to even out the differences between regions. With the adoption of the Single European Act in 1986, economic and social cohesion proper was made an objective alongside completing the single market. The Maastricht Treaty (1992), finally, incorporated the policy into the EC Treaty itself (Articles 158 to 162).
Economic and social cohesion is essentially implemented through the regional policy of the European Union. Besides the reform of the common agricultural policy and enlargement to the Central and East European countries in 2004, regional policy was one of the major issues discussed in Agenda 2000, which covers the period 2000-2006, largely because of the financial implications.
Regional policy is the European Union's second largest budget item, with an allocation of 348 billion euros (2006 prices) for the period 2007-2013. Enlargement to 27 Member States in January 2007 has meant an entirely new order. The surface area of the European Union has increased by over 25%, its population by over 20%, and its wealth by only 5% approximately. Average GDP per capita in the European Union has fallen by more than 10% and regional disparities have doubled. Since 60% of the regions whose development is lagging behind are in the 12 Member States which joined the EU In 2004, the centre of gravity of regional policy is shifting eastwards.
For the period 2007-2013, economic and social cohesion will have to concentrate more on crucial development concerns in the field of economic growth and employment while continuing to support regions which have not completed the process of convergence in real terms. Structural assistance also remains necessary in geographical areas facing specific structural problems (areas undergoing industrial restructuring, urban areas, rural areas, areas dependent on fishing, and areas suffering from natural or demographic handicaps). Finally, simplification and decentralisation of the management of regional policy financial instruments (Structural Funds and Cohesion Fund) will be the watchwords of the regional policy reform for the period 2007-2013.
The European Constitution, which is in the process of being ratified, provides for the objective of territorial cohesion to be added to the concept of economic and social cohesion. If ratified, it will definitively sanction the territorial dimension of regional policy and also reinforce the role of the local authorities. Furthermore, the Committee of the Regions will be more involved in monitoring compliance with the principle of subsidiarity.
Public procurement contracts cover supplies, services and works purchased by the public sector.
Those over a certain value are subject to Community rules and procedures.
This legislation ensures fair treatment for businesses and openness in the handling of invitations to tender. It is to be seen in the context of greater competition and the freedom to provide services within the European common market.
Certain contracts remain a matter purely for the Member States, irrespective of their value, when they affect specific state interests. This particularly applies to defence contracts.
In 2004, the Council and the European Parliament enacted a new package of legislation which simplifies and modernises the procedures for awarding public-sector contracts. This package consists of two directives, one covering public works, supply and services contracts and the other public contracts in the water, energy, transport and postal sectors.
Two more directives govern the appeals procedures concerning the award of public works and supply contracts and the procedures for award of contracts by operators in the water, energy, transport and telecommunications sectors.
The Community legislation requires contracts over certain thresholds to be advertised in the Official Journal. The public procurement information system (SIMAP) provides the public procurement industry with information on European and international business opportunities.
The European Commission is a politically independent collegial institution which embodies and defends the general interests of the European Union. Its virtually exclusive right of initiative in the field of legislation makes it the driving force of European integration. It prepares and then implements the legislative instruments adopted by the Council and the European Parliament in connection with Community policies.
The Commission also has powers of implementation, management and control. It is responsible for planning and implementing common policies, executing the budget and managing Community programmes. As "guardian of the Treaties", it also ensures that European law is applied.
The Commission is appointed for a five-year term by the Council acting by qualified majority in agreement with the Member States. It is subject to a vote of appointment by the European Parliament, to which it is answerable. The Commissioners are assisted by an administration made up of Directorates-General and specialised departments whose staff are divided mainly between Brussels and Luxembourg.
Since its inception the Commission has always been made up of two nationals from each of the Member States with larger populations and one national from each of the others. However, the Treaty of Nice limited the number of Members of the Commission to one per Member State. The Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, provides for a Commission in which only two thirds of the Member States would be represented after 2014. The Members will then be selected in accordance with a rotation system based on the principle of equality.
de:Ausschüsse des Europäischen Parlaments
As in the national Parliaments, various committees have been set up within the European Parliament to prepare the proceedings of the full House. The core legislative work of Parliament is done in these committees. The members of each committee are elected from among the Members of Parliament at the beginning of and half-way through each parliamentary term, according to their political affiliation and their expertise.
The European Parliament's Rules of Procedure specify that the Members of Parliament set the number of committees and determine their powers. For the sixth parliamentary term (2004-2009), it was decided to increase the number of specialised standing committees from 17 to 20, dealing with different areas of activity (internal market, agriculture, employment, industry, culture, constitutional and legal affairs etc.).
Parliament can also set up sub-committees, temporary committees and committees of inquiry if it considers it necessary. Committees of inquiry look into possible infringements of Community law or cases of maladministration in its implementation. For example, a committee of inquiry was set up in 1997 to investigate the delay in the European response to the "mad cow" crisis. Temporary committees are set up for a period of 12 months, but can be renewed indefinitely. Their remit need not be restricted to the implementation of Community law.
The main function of the standing committees is to debate proposals for new legislation put forward by the European Commission and to draw up own-initiative reports. For any proposal for legislation or other initiative, a rapporteur is nominated by agreement between the political groups that make up Parliament. His or her report is discussed, amended and voted on within the parliamentary committee and then placed before the plenary assembly, which meets once a month in Strasbourg, and which debates and votes on the basis of this report.
As preparation for Parliament's vote of approval of the European Commission, the parliamentary committees also conduct hearings of the Commissioners-designate in their specialised areas.
Komitato de la Konstantaj
fr:Coreper (Comité des représentants permanents)
de:Ausschuss der Ständigen Vertreter (AStV)
The Permanent Representatives Committee or "Coreper" (Article 207 of the Treaty establishing the European Community) is responsible for preparing the work of the Council of the European Union. It consists of the Member States' ambassadors to the European Union ("Permanent Representatives") and is chaired by the Member State which holds the Council Presidency.
Coreper occupies a pivotal position in the Community decision-making system, in which it is both a forum for dialogue (among the Permanent Representatives and between them and their respective national capitals) and a means of political control (guidance and supervision of the work of the expert groups).
It thus carries out preliminary scrutiny of the dossiers on the Council agenda (proposals and drafts for acts tabled by the Commission). It seeks to reach agreement at its own level on each dossier, failing which it may suggest guidelines, options or suggested solutions to the Council.
The agendas for Council meetings reflect the progress made in Coreper. They consist of A items, to be approved without discussion following agreement within Coreper, and B items, for discussion.
Coreper works in two configurations:
Coreper deals with all areas of the Council's work apart from agricultural issues, for which Agriculture Council dossiers are prepared by the Special Committee on Agriculture (SCA). When the Council sets up a special committee, such as the Political and Security Committee (PSC) for the CFSP or the Employment Committee for the field of employment, these operate with due regard for Coreper's prerogatives.
Komitato de la regionoj
en:Committee of the Regions
fr:Comité des régions (CdR)
nl:Comité van de Regio's (CdR)
Created in 1992 by the Treaty of Maastricht and established in 1994, the Committee of the Regions (CoR) is an advisory body that allows local and regional authorities to make their voices heard in the decision-making process of the European Union. It is composed of 344 representatives from local and regional authorities, appointed by the Council for four years.
The CoR is consulted by the Council, the Parliament and the Commission in areas that affect local or regional interests. Since the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam in May 1999, the Committee of the Regions must be consulted in a large number of areas: economic and social cohesion, employment, social policy, trans-European transport networks, energy and telecommunications, education and youth, vocational training, culture, the environment, public health and transport.
The CoR may also draw up opinions on its own initiative.
The Treaty of Nice, adopted in December 2000, did not modify the number or distribution of seats by Member States within the CoR. It nonetheless stipulated that the number of its members could not exceed 350. These members should either hold a regional or local authority electoral mandate or be politically accountable to an elected assembly.
The European Constitution, currently being ratified, provides for extending the term of office of the CoR members from four to five years.
Komitato laŭ la artikolo 36 de la EUa traktato
en:Article 36 Committee (Title VI of the EU Treaty)
fr:Comité de l'article 36 du traité UE
nl:Comité van artikel 36 van het EU-Verdrag
The Committee provided for by Article 36 of the Treaty on European Union, also known as CATS, is a Council working group.
The Committee is made up of senior officials and its role is to coordinate the competent working groups in the field of police and judicial cooperation (third pillar). Its mission is also to prepare the relevant work of the Permanent Representatives Committee. The counterpart for issues on asylum and immigration is the SCIFA (Strategic Committee for Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum) which, unlike the CATS, is a first-pillar working group.
Komitato por laboraferoj
fr:Comité de l'emploi
nl:Comité voor de werkgelegenheid
As provided for by the Treaty of Amsterdam, and since a Council Decision of January 2000, the Employment Committee officially replaces the Employment and Labour Market Committee (ELMC) set up in 1996.
The Employment Committee takes over the tasks hitherto carried out by the ELMC on promoting the coordination of national employment and labour market policies.
The Committee's main task is to assist the Council in its work on the European Employment Strategy and its instruments (Employment Guidelines, recommendations on the implementation of national employment policies, etc.).
The Committee also formulates opinions at the request of either the Council or the Commission or on its own initiative.
It is made up of two representatives of each Member State and two representatives of the Commission. It consults the social partners at European level in order to carry out its work successfully.
Eŭropa ekonomia kaj socia komitato
en:European Economic and Social Committee (EESC)
fr:Comité économique et social européen (CESE)
nl:Europees Economisch en Sociaal Comité (EESC)
The European Economic and Social Committee was set up, as an advisory body, by the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community in 1957 to represent the interests of the various economic and social groups. It consists of 344 members falling into three categories: employers, workers and representatives of particular types of activity (such as farmers, craftsmen, small businesses and industry, the professions, consumer representatives, scientists and teachers, cooperatives, families, environmental movements). Members are appointed by qualified majority of the Council for four years and this term may be renewed.
The EESC is consulted before a great many instruments concerning the internal market, education, consumer protection, environment, regional development and social affairs are adopted. It may also issue opinions on its own initiative. Since the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam (May 1999), the EESC has to be consulted on an even wider range of issues (the new employment policy, the new social affairs legislation, public health and equal opportunities) and it may also be consulted by the European Parliament.
The Treaty of Nice, which entered into force on 2003, did not change the number and distribution by Member State of seats on the Committee. However, eligibility for membership was clarified: the EESC is to consist of "representatives of the various economic and social components of organised civil society".
The European Constitution, which is in the process of being ratified, envisages increasing the term of EESC members from four to five years.
la Komitato de la Regionoj
en:the Committee of the Regions
fr:le Comitédes régions
la Ekonomia kaj Sociala Komitato
en:the Economic and Social Committee
fr:le Comité économique et social
fr:Comité de conciliation
Under the codecision procedure between Council and Parliament, a Conciliation Committee may be set up as provided for in Article 251(4) of the Treaty establishing the European Community. It comprises members of the Council or their representatives and an equal number of representatives of Parliament and is co-chaired by the President of the Parliament and the President of the Council.
Any disagreement between the two institutions following the second reading of a proposal is referred to the Committee. The aim is to reach agreement on a text acceptable to both parties. The Commission also plays a part in the Conciliation Committee to help the European Parliament and the Council to resolve their differences.
The draft of any joint text must then be adopted within six weeks (extendable by two weeks) by an absolute majority of the votes cast in Parliament and by a qualified majority in the Council. Should one of the two institutions reject the proposal, it is deemed not to have been adopted.
Politika kaj sekureca komitato
en:Political and Security Committee (PSC)
fr:Comité politique et de sécurité (COPS)
nl:Politiek en Veiligheidscomité (PVC)
de:Politisches und Sicherheitspolitisches Komitee (PSK)
The Political and Security Committee (PSC, or COPS, as it is also known by its French acronym) is the permanent body in the field of common foreign and security policy mentioned in Article 25 of the Treaty on European Union.
It is made up of the political directors of the Member States' foreign ministries. Its remit is:
Under the responsibility of the Council, the Committee exercises political control and strategic direction of crisis management operations. It may thus be authorised by the Council to take decisions on the practical management of a crisis. It is assisted by a Politico-Military Group, a Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management, and the Military Committee (MC) and Military Staff (MS).
Following the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam, establishment of the Committee was agreed in principle at the Helsinki European Council in December 1999. The Committee was originally temporary but became a standing body after the Nice European Council in December 2000.
Komitatoj kaj laborgrupoj
en:Committees and working parties
fr:Comités et groupes de travail
nl:Comités en werkgroepen
The committees, whose task it is to assist the Community institutions, are involved at all stages of the legislative process. The Commission regularly consults committees of experts before drawing up a new proposal for legislation. These committees, which are made up of representatives of the milieux involved, private sector or national government experts, ensure that the Commission remains open to the concerns of those who will be affected by the legislation. There are about 60 advisory committees covering all sectors, though about half of them deal with agricultural issues.
In the European Parliament, various permanent committees organise the work of the MEPs.
The Council is also assisted by committees and working parties which prepare its decisions. The existence of certain committees is provided for in the treaties (Article 36 Committee for justice and home affairs, for example), and others are ad hoc committees such as the Cultural Affairs Committee, which evaluates proposals on cultural cooperation, prepares the Council discussions and follows up action taken. These committees are made up of representatives of the Member States plus one member of the Commission. In parallel, various working parties do the preparatory work for Coreper. While some of them are set up on a temporary basis to deal with a particular dossier, about a hundred groups cover a given sector and meet regularly.
When a legislative text has been adopted, it lays down the general principles to be respected. More precise implementing measures may be necessary to apply these principles. In this case, the text provides that a committee is to be set up within the Commission in order to take the appropriate decisions. These committees are made up of experts nominated by the Member States and chaired by the Commission, and are generally governed by rules established by the 28 June 1999 Council decision known as the 'Comitology Decision'. There are about 300 of them, in the fields of industry, social affairs, agriculture, the environment, the internal market, research and development, consumer protection and food safety.
Laŭ la Traktato stariganta la Eŭropan Komunumon (EK Traktato, Artikolo 202), la Komisiono efektivigas la leĝaron je Komunuma nivelo. Praktike, ĉiu leĝa akto difinas la limojn de la efektivigantaj kompetentoj atribuitaj al la Komisiono fare de la Konsilantaro de la Eŭropa Unio. En tiu kunteksto, la Traktato preskribas ke la Komisiono estu helpita de komitato, laŭ procezo nomita "Komitatologio".
La komitatoj estas diskutejoj, kaj konsistas el reprezentantoj de Membroŝtatoj; ili estas sub la prezido de la Komisiono. Ili ebligas, ke la Komisiono establu dialogon kun naciaj registaroj antaŭ ol alpreni efektivigantajn decidojn. La Komisiono certigas ke ili konformiĝas kiel plej eblas al la situacio en ĉiu koncerna lando.
Rilatoj inter la Komisiono kaj la komitatoj estas regulataj laŭ modeloj preskribitaj de la Konsilio, la "Komitatologia Decido" adoptita la 28-an de Junio 1999. Tiu garantias al la Parlamento la rajton kontroli la efektivigon de leĝdonaj aktoj alprenitaj laŭ sub la kundecida procezo. La Parlamento povas kontraŭi la projektojn de la Komisiono, aŭ eventuale de la Konsilio, kiam ĝi konsideras ke tiuj projektoj estas ekster ties kompetentoj.
La sekvaj kategorioj de komitatoj povas esti dividitaj, laŭ la maniero kiel ili funkcias:
La Konsilia Decido de la 28-a de Junio 1999 kiu anstataŭis tiun de la 13-a de Julio 1987. Ĝi simpligas la sistemon kaj konsideras la novan kundecidan procezon. La komitata sistemo iĝis pli malfermita al ekzamenado de la Parlamento kaj de la publiko. La Komitataj dokumentoj estas pli facile alireblaj de civitanoj, kaj estas registritaj en publikan registron. Dank'al la komputilizado de decidofaraj procezoj, la celo estas publikigi surrete la kompletajn tekstojn de nekonfidencaj dokumentoj senditaj al la Parlamento.
The European Company (known by its Latin name of "Societas Europaea" or SE) is a company established under Community law. It has its own legal framework and can operate as a single entity throughout the EU.
In 2001, the Union formally adopted the regulation on the Statute for a European Company and the associated directive on employee participation in European Companies.
This legislation entered into force in 2004 after some 30 years of discussion. It allows companies to cut administrative costs and provides them with a legal structure suitable for the common market, avoiding the legal and practical constraints arising from 25 different legal systems.
Under the European Company Statute, an SE can be set up by:
The SE must have a minimum subscribed capital of 120 000 euros and its registered office, specified in the statutes, must be at the same place as its real head office.
The agreement on the SE is one of the priorities identified by the Financial Services Action Plan (FSAP) and is regarded as vital to the creation of a fully integrated market in financial services.
Article 308 of the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty) provides a measure of flexibility with regard to the Community's areas of competence. It thus allows the Community's powers to be adjusted to the objectives laid down by the Treaty when the latter has not provided the powers of action necessary to attain them.
Article 308 of the EC Treaty thus cannot be used as a legal basis unless the following conditions are met:
Moreover, it is for the Council of the European Union, acting unanimously on a proposal from the Commission and after consulting the European Parliament, to decide whether this Article should be used.
Article 308 thus reflects awareness on the part of those who drafted the Treaty of Rome that the powers specifically conferred (functional competence) might not be adequate for the purpose of attaining the objectives expressly set by the Treaties themselves (competence ratione materiae). It cannot in any circumstances be used as a basis for extending the areas of competence of the Community.
kompetento alpreni delegitajn Eŭropajn regularojn
en:the power toenact delegated regulations
fr: le pouvoir d’édicterdes règlements délégués
Disdivido de kompetentoj.
en:Distribution of competences
fr:Répartition des compétences
nl:Verdeling van de bevoegdheden
The distribution of powers between the European Union and its Member States makes a distinction between three different types of competence:
The principles of subsidiarity and proportionality act as power regulators so as to ensure compliance with this distribution.
The European Constitution, which is in the process of being ratified, clarifies the division of powers between the Union and the Member States. It applies the conventional typology of powers, or "competences", adding a list of areas which come under each type. It distinguishes between exclusive competence, shared competence and competence to take supporting, coordinating or complementary action.
Eksteraj kompetentoj de la Eŭropa Komunumo
en:External responsibilities of the European Community
fr:Compétences externes de la Communauté européenne
nl:Externe bevoegdheden van de Europese Gemeenschap
de:Außenkompetenzen der Europäischen Gemeinschaft
The European Community's external responsibilities are defined in accordance with whether they are conferred on the Community or on the Member States. Competence is described as "exclusive" where exercised entirely by the Community (e.g. the common agricultural policy) and "mixed" where shared with the Member States (e.g. transport policy).
The distinction has been defined in Court of Justice case law and is based on the principle of implicit powers, whereby external competence derives from the existence of explicit internal competence. The EC Treaty confers explicit powers in only two cases: commercial policy (Article 133) and association agreements (Article 310).
The common foreign and security policy comes under the heading of the EU's external relations, which are governed by intergovernmental procedures (second pillar), rather than under the external responsibilities of the European Community. To enable the Community to adapt to structural change in the world economy and reflect the wide responsibilities given to the World Trade Organisation, the Treaty of Amsterdam has amended Article 133 of the EC Treaty to allow the Council, acting unanimously, to broaden the scope of the common commercial policy to cover international negotiations and agreements on services and intellectual property.
The Treaty of Nice has enabled decision-making through qualified majority to be introduced into these areas. Competence for agreements on the harmonisation of cultural, audiovisual, educational, social and health services will continue to be shared with the Member States. The agreements are therefore subject to unanimity.
fr:Compromis de Ioannina
nl:Compromis van Ioannina
The Ioannina compromise takes its name from an informal meeting of foreign ministers in the Greek city of Ioannina on 29 March 1994. Among the decisions taken at the meeting was a Council decision concerning the specific question of qualified majority voting in an enlarged 16-member Community. The decision was later adjusted in the light of Norway's decision not to join. The resulting compromise lays down that if members of the Council representing between 23 votes (the old blocking minority threshold) and 26 votes (the new threshold) express their intention of opposing the taking of a decision by the Council by qualified majority, the Council will do all within its power, within a reasonable space of time, to reach a satisfactory solution that can be adopted by at least 68 votes out of 87.
Following the re-weighting of votes in the Council of Ministers, the Treaty of Nice puts an end to the Ioannina compromise.
fr:Compromis de Luxembourg
nl:Compromis van Luxemburg
The Luxembourg Compromise, signed on 30 January 1966, provides that "Where, in the case of decisions which may be taken by majority vote on a proposal of the Commission, very important interests of one or more partners are at stake, the Members of the Council will endeavour, within a reasonable time, to reach solutions which can be adopted by all the Members of the Council while respecting their mutual interests and those of the Community".
It ended the crisis between France and its five Community partners and the European Commission, caused by the gradual transition from unanimous voting to qualified-majority voting as provided for in the Treaty of Rome with effect from 1966. The French Government, which gave precedence to the intergovernmental approach, expressed its disapproval by applying the "empty chair" policy, i.e. abstaining from Council proceedings for seven months from 30 June 1965 onwards.
However, the Compromise, which is only a political declaration by Foreign Ministers and cannot amend the Treaty, did not prevent the Council from taking decisions in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community, which provided for a series of situations in which qualified-majority voting applied. Moreover, qualified-majority voting has been gradually extended to many areas and has now become normal procedure, unanimity being the exception. The Luxembourg Compromise remains in force even though, in practice, it may simply be evoked without actually having the power to block the decision-making process.
Communitisation means transferring a matter which, in the institutional framework of the Union, is dealt with using the intergovernmental method (second and third pillars) to the Community method (first pillar).
The Community method is based on the idea that the general interest of Union citizens is best defended when the Community institutions play their full role in the decision-making process, with due regard for the subsidiarity principle.
Following the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam (May 1999), questions relating to the free movement of persons, which used to come under cooperation on justice and home affairs (third pillar), have been "communitised". After a five-year transitional phase, therefore, they will be dealt with under the Community method.
The European Constitution currently being ratified provides for the merger of the three existing pillars but retains certain specific procedures for the common foreign and security policy, including the defence policy. This will make it possible to communitise most of the matters currently handled by the intergovernmental method.
The European Community (EC) is a founding element of the European integration process.
It was established (as the European Economic Community) by the Treaty of Rome in 1957, with the principal objective of creating a common market without internal borders.
The establishment of the European Union (EU) in 1992 did not cause the European Economic Community to disappear. It remains part of the EU under the designation "European Community".
Article 2 of the Treaty establishing the EC defines its task as promoting throughout the Community:
To achieve these goals, the EC has devised a set of sectoral policies, focusing on the fields of transport, competition, fisheries and agriculture, asylum and immigration, energy and the environment.
These policies are implemented under the decision-making procedure laid down by the Treaty establishing the EC, with particular emphasis on codecision. The decision-making mechanism governing these policies is based on a specific model known as the "Community method".
proceduro por atingi interkompreniĝon de malsamopiniantoj aŭ de homoj kun malsamaj interesoj (Ĉarto de UN, trad. Raiph Harry)
en:Intergovernmental Conference (IGC)
fr:Conférence intergouvernementale (CIG)
nl:Intergouvernementele Conferentie (IGC)
This term is used to describe negotiations between the Member States' governments with a view to amending the Treaties. Intergovernmental conferences play a major part in European integration, since institutional changes must always be the outcome of such negotiations.
These conferences are convened, at the initiative of a Member State or the Commission, by the Council of Ministers acting by a simple majority (after consulting the European Parliament and, if appropriate, the Commission).
The preparatory work is entrusted to a group consisting of a representative of each of the Member States' governments and, as a matter of custom, a representative of the Commission. The European Parliament is closely involved throughout by means of observers and discussions with the President of the Parliament. This group regularly reports to the General Affairs Council. The final decisions are taken by the heads of state and government at a European Council. It should be noted that the preparatory work for the 2004 IGC took a more unusual course, as it was entrusted to a Convention and accompanied by a wide-ranging public debate.
The most important IGCs in recent years have resulted in the following treaties:
en:in accordance with
fr:sans préjudice de
konforme al la dispozicioj
en:in accordance with the provisions
fr:conformément aux dispositions
A market where there is free competition is a market on which mutually independent businesses engage in the same activity and contend to attract consumers. In other words, each business is subject to competitive pressure from the others. Effective competition thus gives businesses a level playing field but also confers many benefits on consumers (lower prices, better quality, wider choice, etc.).
European competition policy is intended to ensure free and fair competition in the European Union. The Community rules on competition (Articles 81 to 89 of the EC Treaty) are based on five main principles:
The European Commission and the national competition authorities enforce the Community competition rules. Cooperation between them, within the European Competition Network (ECN), ensures effective and consistent application of the rules.
A competitive economy is an economy with a sustained high rate of productivity growth.
Since the Lisbon Strategy set out to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world, competitiveness has become one of the political priorities of the Union. European industry needs to be competitive if the Community is to achieve its economic, social and environmental goals and thus ensure an improving quality of life for Europe's citizens. In its efforts to promote competitiveness, the Union also seeks to adapt the European economy to structural change, relocation of industrial activity to emerging economies, redeployment of jobs and resources to new industrial sectors and the risk of a process of deindustrialisation.
The Union's competitiveness is determined by productivity growth and thus depends on the performance and the future of European industry, an especially on its capacity for structural adjustment. To be competitive, the Union must outperform in terms of research and innovation, information and communication technologies, entrepreneurship, competition, education and training.
Across-the-board economic analysis and detailed analysis of the different sectors are needed to support the Union's action to boost competitiveness.
Konsilio de Eŭropa Unio
en:Council of the European Union
fr:Conseil de l'Union européenne
nl:Raad van de Europese Unie
The Council of the European Union ("Council of Ministers" or "Council") is the Union's main decision-making body. Its meetings are attended by Member State ministers and it is thus the institution which represents the Member States. The Council's headquarters are in Brussels, but some of its meetings are held in Luxembourg. Sessions of the Council are convened by the Presidency, which sets the agenda.
The Council meets in different configurations (nine in all), bringing together the competent Member State ministers: General Affairs and External Relations; Economic and Financial Affairs; Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs; Competitiveness; Cooperation in the fields of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA); Transport, Telecommunications and Energy; Agriculture and Fisheries; Environment; Education, Youth and Culture.
Each country of the European Union presides over the Council for six months, by rotation. Decisions are prepared by the Committee of Permanent Representatives of the Member States (Coreper), assisted by working groups of national government officials.
The Council, together with the European Parliament, acts in a legislative and budgetary capacity. It is also the lead institution for decision-making on the common foreign and security policy (CFSP), and on the coordination of economic policies (intergovernmental approach), as well as being the holder of executive power, which it generally delegates to the Commission.
In most cases, the Council's decisions, based on proposals from the Commission, are taken jointly with the European Parliament under the codecision procedure. Depending on the subject, the Council takes decisions by simple majority, qualified majority or unanimity, although the qualified majority is more widely used (agriculture, single market, environment, transport, employment, health, etc.).
The European Constitution, currently being ratified, proposes a new system for holding Council Presidencies. The Council will be presided over, for 18 months, by a team of three Member States, each of which will hold the Presidency for a period of six months, assisted by the other two States on the basis of a common programme. In addition, the General Affairs Council will be chaired by the Minister for Foreign Affairs. Lastly, there will be a change to the qualified majority voting system within the Council (double majority of the States and of the population, applicable from 2009 onwards).
Konsilio de Ministroj
en:Council of Ministers
fr:le Conseil des ministres
la Eŭropa Konsilio
en:the European Council
fr:le Conseil européen
The European Council is the term used to describe the regular meetings of the Heads of State or Government of the European Union Member States. Its role is to provide the European Union with the necessary impetus for its development and to define the general political guidelines (Article 4 of the Treaty on European Union). It does not enact legislation and is not an institution.
It meets at least twice per year (in practice, twice per presidency) and the President of the European Commission attends as a full member. An extraordinary meeting can be held whenever necessary. It is chaired by the Member State holding the six-month presidency of the Union. Decisions are taken by consensus following negotiation between the Member States, which begins before the summit. The outcome of the European Council deliberations is recorded in the conclusions published at the end of the meeting.
The European Council was set up by the communiqué issued at the close of the December 1974 Paris Summit and first met in 1975. Before that time, from 1961 to 1974, the practice had been to hold European summit conferences. The Single European Act (1986) gave a legal basis to its existence and the Treaty on European Union (Treaty of Maastricht, 1992) specified its functions.
Under the terms of a declaration attached to the Final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference preparatory to the Treaty of Nice, all meetings of the European Council have been held in Brussels since the Union attained a membership of 18 (May 2004).
The European Constitution currently being ratified gives the European Council the status of a European institution. It also provides for changes to the presidency system by establishing the permanent function of President of the European Council, elected by that body for a term of two and a half years.
Konsisto de la Eŭropa Komisiono
en:Composition of the European Commission
fr:Composition de la Commission européenne
nl:Samenstelling van de Europese Commissie
From its earliest days, the Commission was always made up of two nationals of each of the Member States with the largest populations and one national of each of the others. In the enlarged Union, the Commission's make-up is the focus of considerable debate.
It is a key issue, since it involves deciding on the optimum number of Commissioners needed to guarantee the legitimacy, collective responsibility and effectiveness of an institution whose purpose is to represent the general interest in a fully independent way. The concept of collective responsibility is crucial. It is a feature of the Commission structure and means that positions adopted by the Commission reflect the views of the Commission as a whole, not those of individual members. With the prospect of future enlargements, it was feared that a large increase in the number of Commissioners would lead to nationalisation of their function to the detriment of collective responsibility. Conversely, should the number be limited, the fear was that some nationalities would not be represented among the Commissioners.
The Treaty of Nice, a product of the 2000 Intergovernmental Conference, offered a provisional solution by limiting the number of members to one Commissioner per Member State as from the start of the term of the 2004-09 Commission. The present European executive, chaired by the former Portuguese prime minister, José Manuel Barroso, thus consists of 27 Commissioners.
The protocol on enlargement annexed to the Treaty of Nice also stipulates that, from the date on which the first Commission following the date of accession of the 27th Member State of the Union takes up its duties (i.e. in principle as of November 2009), the number of Members of the Commission shall be less than the number of Member States. The actual number will then be set by the Council, acting unanimously.
The future composition of the Commission was also one of the most sensitive topics during the negotiations on the European Constitution. The outcome is that the Constitution now being ratified provides for the composition of the Commission to be reduced to two thirds of the number of Member States as from 2014. The Commissioners will be chosen by a rotation system based on the principle of equality.
en:european constituent assembly
fr:assemblée constituante euroméenne
nl:europese grondwetgevende vergadering
fr:Constitution (projet de)
The European Constitution, officially known as the "Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe", marks a key step in European integration.
It is the result of the work of the Convention, which drew up a "Draft Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe" in July 2003. This draft served as a basis for the work of the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) which started officially in October 2003. The IGC concluded on 29 October 2004 in Rome with the signature of the new Constitutional Treaty by the 25 Heads of State and Government of the Member States.
The aim of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe is to make the enlarged Europe more effective, democratic and transparent. It is intended to replace the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community. It also:
To enter into force, the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe must be ratified by all the Member States, in accordance with each one's constitutional rules.
kontrolesploro farita de samfakuloj
Konvencio (Titolo VI de la
en:Convention (Title VI of the EU Treaty)
fr:Convention (Titre VI du traité UE)
nl:Overeenkomst (titel VI van het EU-Verdrag)
de:Uebereinkommen (Titel VI EU-Vertrag)
The convention is an instrument pertaining to the third pillar of the European Union (justice and home affairs). It was introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht, along with the common position and common action.
For example, Europol is based on a convention adopted in 1995.
This type of instrument was retained by the Treaty of Amsterdam. It is listed along with the decision and framework decision in Article 34 of the Treaty on European Union. Since the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam (May 1999), conventions may be used only for police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters.
A convention is adopted by the Council, acting unanimously after consulting the European Parliament, and enters into force when it has been ratified by at least half the Member States.
When the pillar-based structure of the Union is abolished as provided for by the European Constitution now being ratified, the convention, which at present is rarely used, will disappear and be replaced by European laws and framework laws.
The process of setting up the European Convention began in December 2000 with a Declaration annexed to the Nice Treaty, the "Declaration on the Future of the Union". This proposed continuing with institutional reform beyond what had been achieved at the 2000 Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) following a three-stage procedure: launching a debate on the future of the European Union, a Convention on institutional reform to be set up as decided at the Laeken European Council in December 2001 and an IGC to be convened in 2004.
According to the Laeken Declaration, which created it, the aim of this Convention was to examine four key questions on the future of the Union: the division of powers, the simplification of the treaties, the role of the national parliaments and the status of the Charter of Fundamental Rights. Three phases were envisaged: a listening phase, a deliberating phase and a drafting phase. At the end of the last phase, a single constitutional text would be proposed. This document would serve as the starting point for the IGC negotiations conducted by the Heads of State and Government, ultimately responsible for any decision on amendments to the treaties.
The inaugural meeting of the Convention was held on 28 February 2002, and it concluded its work on 10 July 2003 after reaching agreement on a proposal for a European Constitution.
The Convention is an innovation in the history of the European Union as previous IGCs had never been preceded by a phase of debate open to all stakeholders.
On18 June 2004, the Intergovernmental Conference met at Head of State or Government level and agreed on the draft European Constitution prepared by the Convention.
Eŭropa Konvencio pri Homaj Rajtoj
en:European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)
fr:Convention européenne des droits de l'homme (CEDH)
nl:Europees Verdrag tot bescherming van de rechten van de mensen de fundamentele vrijheden (EVRM)
de:Europäische Menschenrechtskonvention (MRK)
The European Convention on Human Rights, signed in Rome under the aegis of the Council of Europe on 4 November 1950, established an unprecedented system of international protection for human rights, offering individuals the possibility of applying to the courts for the enforcement of their rights. The Convention, which has been ratified by all the Member States of the Union, established a number of supervisory bodies based in Strasbourg. These were:
The growing number of cases made it necessary to reform the supervisory arrangements established by the Convention. The supervisory bodies were thus replaced on 1 November 1998 by a single European Court of Human Rights. The simplified structure shortened the length of procedures and enhanced the judicial character of the system.
The idea of the European Union acceding to the ECHR has often been raised. However, in an opinion given on 28 March 1996, the Court of Justice of the European Union stated that the European Communities could not accede to the Convention because the EC Treaty did not provide any powers to lay down rules or to conclude international agreements on human rights.
The Treaty of Amsterdam nevertheless calls for respect for the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Convention, while formalising the judgments of the Court of Justice on the matter. As regards relations between the two Courts, the practice developed by the Court of Justice of incorporating the principles of the Convention into Union law has made it possible to maintain their independence and coherence in their work.
The Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, nevertheless provides for the European Union to have legal personality, thus enabling it to accede to the ECHR. It also provides for the incorporation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, announced at the Nice European Council on 7 December 2000, which will give it binding legal force.
en:the Court of Justice
fr:la Cour de justice
Kortumo de la Eŭropaj Komunumoj
en:Court of Justice of the European Communities
fr:Cour de justice des Communautés européennes (CJCE)
nl:Het Hof van Justitie van de Europese Gemeenschappen
de:Gerichtshof der Europäischen Gemeinschaften (EuGH)
The Court of Justice ensures compliance with the law in the interpretation and application of the founding Treaties. It is composed of the same number of judges as there are Member States (Article 221) and therefore at present has 27 judges. Partial replacement takes place every three years. The judges select one their number as President of the Court, for a renewable three-year term. The judges are assisted by eight advocates-general who are appointed for six years by agreement among the Member States.
The Court may sit in chambers (3-5 judges), as a Grand Chamber (13 judges) or as a Full Court.
The ECJ was created by the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. It has two principal functions:
The overloading of the ECJ and the increasing length of time taken to deal with cases led to the creation of the Court of First Instance (CFI) in 1989. The CFI represents a second tier of judicial authority and has relieved the ECJ of some of its workload. Similarly, the Treaty of Nice made it possible to set up specialised judicial panels, such as the European Civil Service Tribunal, which has been operational since 2005.
With a view to simplifying and rationalising the operation of the Court, its Statute can now be amended by the Council, acting unanimously at the request of the Court or the Commission. Similarly, approval of the Court's Rules of Procedure by the Council is now done by qualified majority.
The European Constitution, which is currently being ratified, provides for the creation of a single two-division court, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), which will bring together the "European Court of Justice", the "High Court" and specialised courts. It will also be easier for citizens and companies to take legal action against European Union regulations even if they are not themselves affected by them.
en:the European Court of Justice
fr:la Cour de justice européenne,
Eŭropa Revizora Kortumo
en:European Court of Auditors
fr:Cour des comptes européenne
he European Court of Auditors, based in Luxembourg, is composed of one national from each Member State. Its members are appointed for six years (renewable) by a qualified majority of the Council of the European Union after consulting the European Parliament. The Court of Auditors acts in complete independence.
The Court checks the revenue and expenditure of the European Union (and any body created by the Community) for legality and regularity and ensures that its financial management is sound. It also supplies the European Parliament and the Council with a statement of assurance as to the reliability of the accounts and the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions. It draws up an annual report published in the Official Journal at the end of each budgetary year.
Under the Treaty of Amsterdam, the Court of Auditors also has the power to report any irregularities to the European Parliament and the Council, and its audit responsibilities have been extended to Community funds managed by outside bodies and by the European Investment Bank. However, it does not have the power to impose penalties.
Under the Treaty of Nice, the Court is also able to establish internal chambers to adopt certain categories of report or opinion.
The Court of Auditors was established in 1975 and began work in 1977, and has been a European institution since the Treaty on European Union in 1992. It is governed by Articles 246 to 248 of the EC Treaty.
en:the Court of Auditors
fr: la Cour des comptes
fr: infractions pénales
Kriterioj de konverĝo
fr:Critères de convergence
In order to ensure the sustainable convergence required for the achievement of economic and monetary union (EMU), the Treaty sets four convergence criteria which must be met by each Member State before it can take part in the third stage of EMU and hence before it can adopt the euro. Compliance is checked on the basis of reports produced by the Commission and the European Central Bank (ECB). The criteria are:
The convergence criteria are meant to ensure that economic development within EMU is balanced and does not give rise to any tensions between the Member States. The criteria relating to government deficit and government debt must continue to be met after the start of the third stage of EMU (1 January 1999). To this end, a stability pact was adopted at the Amsterdam European Council in June 1997 and enables the members of the Euro-zone to coordinate national government budget policies and avoid excessive government budget deficits.
en:Accession criteria (Copenhagen criteria)
fr:Critères d'adhésion (critères de Copenhague)
nl:Toetredingscriteria (criteria van Kopenhagen)
Any country seeking membership of the European Union (EU) must conform to the conditions set out by Article 49 and the principles laid down in Article 6(1) of the Treaty on European Union. Relevant criteria were established by the Copenhagen European Council in 1993 and strengthened by the Madrid European Council in 1995.
To join the EU, a new Member State must meet three criteria:
For the European Council to decide to open negotiations, the political criterion must be satisfied.
Any country that wishes to join the Union must meet the accession criteria. The pre-accession strategy and accession negotiations provide the necessary framework and instruments.
Whilst the will to conduct cultural activities at European level was apparent as early as the 1970s, it was not until 1991 that culture was officially given a place in European integration, through Article 151 of the Maastricht Treaty, which states that "The Community shall contribute to the flowering of the cultures of the Member States, while respecting their national and regional diversity and at the same time bringing the common cultural heritage to the fore".
To create a real European cultural area, the Union is called upon to promote cooperation between the Member States and, if necessary, to support and complement their activities in the following areas:
For ten years, the Commission supported cultural cooperation via three experimental programmes in this sector (Kaléïdoscope, Ariane and Raphaël), covering the performing, plastic and visual arts, heritage and books. The European Community has also supported the Member States' initiative to designate a “European City of Culture” each year since 1985.
In 2000, the Commission adopted the “Culture 2000” framework programme, a new approach to cultural action. The aim of this programme was to create a common cultural area by promoting cultural dialogue, the creation and dissemination of culture and the mobility of artists and their works, European cultural heritage, new forms of cultural expression and the socio-economic role of culture. In 2007 the “Culture” programme succeeded the “Culture 2000” framework programme. The new programme covers the period 2007-2013. It takes over the objectives of the “Culture 2000” framework programme, but also includes the collection and dissemination of information in the field of cultural cooperation.
Apart from the "Culture” programme, cultural cooperation in Europe is also promoted by specific activities funded by other European programmes. This applies in particular to activities in the context of economic, research, education, training and regional development aid policies that also promote cultural cooperation. This cooperation has a broad base, as most of the programmes are open to the member countries of the European Economic Area and the candidate countries, and third countries and international organisations are also involved.
Eŭropa Jura kunlaborado...
Set up by a Council Decision in 2002, Eurojust is the body entrusted with reinforcing the fight against serious crime through closer judicial cooperation within the European Union.
This body for coordinating Member States' national public prosecution services comprises 27 national representatives: judges, prosecutors and police officers on secondment from each Member State. It can carry out its tasks through one or more of the national members or collectively. Moreover, each Member State may appoint one or more national correspondents, who may also act as contact points for the European Judicial Network.
Eurojust's competence covers investigations and prosecutions in relation to serious crime, particularly organised crime or cross-border crime. Its goals are to promote coordination between competent authorities in the Member States but also to facilitate international mutual legal assistance, and carry out extradition requests and European arrest warrants.
Eurojust also contributes to Member States' criminal investigations on the basis of analyses carried out by Europol. There is some overlap in the two bodies' competences with regard to: computer crime, fraud and corruption, laundering of the proceeds of crime, environmental crime, participation in a criminal organisation.
The European Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, expands and more closely defines Eurojust's operational competences. The Treaty of Nice entitles Eurojust to request Member States to open investigations, without this request being binding. In contrast, the constitutional treaty provides for Eurojust itself to:
The European Constitution also provides that the Council may take a unanimous decision to establish a European Public Prosecutor's Office on the basis of Eurojust. This would be responsible for investigating, prosecuting and bringing to judgment the perpetrators of, and accomplices in, serious cross-border crime and illegal activities which harm the European Union's interests.
Eŭropa politika kunlaborado
en:European political cooperation (EPC)
fr:Coopération politique européenne (CPE)
nl:Europese politieke samenwerking (EPS)
de:Europäische Politische Zusammenarbeit (EPZ)
European political cooperation (EPC) was introduced informally in 1970 (in response to the Davignon report) and formalised by the Single European Act with effect from 1987. The object is consultations between the Member States in foreign policy matters. The Member States have regard for the views of the European Parliament and wherever possible take common positions in international organisations. EPC was superseded by the common foreign and security policy.
Enhanced cooperation allows those countries of the Union that wish to continue to work more closely together to do so, while respecting the single institutional framework of the Union. The Member States concerned can thus move forward at different speeds and/or towards different goals. However, enhanced cooperation does not allow extension of the powers as laid down by the Treaties. Moreover it may be undertaken only as a last resort, when it has been established within the Council that the objectives of such cooperation cannot be attained within a reasonable period by applying the relevant provisions of the Treaties.
The general arrangements for enhanced cooperation are laid down by the Treaty on European Union (EU Treaty, Title VII) and relate to both the European Union and the European Community. In principle, at least eight States must be involved in enhanced cooperation, but it remains open to any State that wishes to participate. It may not constitute discrimination between the participating States and the others. Enhanced cooperation must also further the Treaty objectives and respect the whole of the acquis communautaire and the powers of the various parties. It may not apply to an area that falls within the exclusive competence of the Community.
In addition to the general regime, special arrangements may be made or added by individual Treaties, as in the case of the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty, Articles 11 and 11 A). Under the EC Treaty, for example, the initiative for enhanced cooperation is taken by the Commission at the request of the Member States concerned, whereas under the EU Treaty the initiative comes from the Member States. In either case, institution of enhanced cooperation is subject to a decision of the Council, acting by a qualified majority. Enhanced cooperation may also be pursued in relation to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP), except for military or defence matters.
The Treaty of Amsterdam incorporated the "enhanced cooperation" concept into the Treaty on European Union as regards judicial cooperation on criminal matters and into the Treaty establishing the European Community. The Treaty of Nice introduced major changes aimed at simplifying the mechanism. In particular, a Member State may not oppose the establishment of enhanced cooperation as originally allowed by the Treaty of Amsterdam.
The European Constitution now being ratified provides for easier recourse to this mechanism. In particular, the initial authorisation procedures and those concerning participation by other Member States at a later stage have been simplified. The minimum participation threshold has been set at one third of Member States. The restrictions concerning the CFSP are removed. The Constitution provides for a special mechanism in defence matters: permanent structured cooperation.
justica kunlaboro pri civilaj aferoj
en:Judicial cooperation in civil matters
fr:Coopération judiciaire en matière civile
nl:Justitiële samenwerking in burgerlijke zaken
de:Justizielle Zusammenarbeit in Zivilsachen
In a genuine European Area of Justice, individuals and businesses should be free to exercise their rights fully. The main objective of judicial cooperation in civil matters is to improve collaboration between Member States' authorities in order to eliminate all obstacles stemming from incompatibility between the various judicial and administrative systems (mutual recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, access to justice and harmonisation of national legislation).
As early as 1993, the Maastricht Treaty included judicial cooperation in civil matters in its Title VI. The Amsterdam Treaty transferred judicial cooperation in civil matters to Title IV of the EC Treaty (new Article 65). It thus "communitised" judicial cooperation in civil matters and included it in the area of freedom, security and justice (AFSJ). However, this is only partial during a five-year transition period (Article 67 of the EC Treaty) since the Commission shares the right of initiative with the Member States, the European Parliament is merely consulted and unanimity is the main basis for decisions in the Council.
Until the Amsterdam Treaty, judicial cooperation in civil matters essentially took the form of conventions. Thanks to the communitisation of this field, most of the conventions have been modernised and converted into regulations, thus giving the Court of Justice jurisdiction to interpret them.
The Tampere European Council (October 1999) made the principle of mutual recognition of judgments the true cornerstone of judicial cooperation in both civil and criminal matters within the European Union.
With the entry into force of the Treaty of Nice in February 2003, the decision procedure in Article 67 was replaced by qualified-majority voting and the codecision procedure with regard to judicial cooperation in civil matters, with the exception of family law.
The European Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, provides for the addition to Article III-269 of a paragraph enabling the Council of Ministers, acting unanimously, to extend the ordinary legislative procedure to certain aspects of family law (bridging clause).
Polica kaj justica kunlaboro pri krimaferoj
en:Police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters
fr:Coopération policière et judiciaire en matière pénale
nl:Politiële en justitiële samenwerking in strafzaken
de:Polizeiliche und justizielle Zusammenarbeit in Strafsachen
Within the area of freedom, security and justice, the aim of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters is to ensure a high level of safety for EU citizens by promoting and strengthening speedy and efficient cooperation between police and judicial authorities (Article 29 of the Treaty on European Union). Police and judicial cooperation is dealt with in Title VI of the EU Treaty (third pillar) and its aim is to prevent and combat racism and xenophobia and also organised crime, in particular terrorism, trafficking in human beings, crimes against children, drug trafficking, arms trafficking, corruption and fraud.
Police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters takes the form of:
It is implemented mainly via agencies set up by the European Union under the third pillar (Eurojust, Europol and the European Judicial Network).
Cooperation under Title VI also involves the approximation of rules on criminal matters in the Member States and the development of mechanisms for the mutual recognition of judicial decisions in criminal matters.
In addition, such cooperation is conducted by intergovernmental arrangements, the powers of the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Court of Justice of the European Communities being limited in favour of the Council of the European Union and the Member States.
Initially, Title VI of the EU Treaty, introduced by the Maastricht Treaty, contained provisions establishing cooperation on justice and home affairs. The Treaty of Amsterdam, however, reduced the number of matters covered by Title VI by transferring a number of them to the Treaty establishing the European Community (first pillar), specifically to Title IV: "Visas, asylum, immigration and other policies related to free movement of persons". The provisions on police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters remain in Title VI of the Treaty on European Union. Title IV of the EC Treaty and Title VI of the EU Treaty thus together form the legal basis for an area of freedom, security and justice.
The European Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, specifies the area of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. It also abolishes the third pillar by grouping the current provisions of the EC and EU Treaties on justice and home affairs into a single chapter.
en:a special meeting
fr:une réunion extraordinaire
(pri politika strukturo aŭ aferstato) havanta subtenon desia reprezentataro, kutime sankciitan per la voĉoj de demokratiaplimulto
The term "antitrust" refers to competition rules on agreements and business practices which restrict competition and on abuse of dominant positions.
Agreements and concerted practices which may restrict competition are prohibited by the antitrust provisions of Article 81 of the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty). The prohibition applies to cartels (also referred to as "agreements") and relates to situations in which competing businesses collude to restrict competition, by fixing prices, limiting production or sharing markets. Restrictive agreements may nonetheless be permitted if they generate more positive than negative effects (agreements improving production, product distribution, contributing to technical progress, etc.).
The Community antitrust rules also forbid abuse of a dominant position within a market (Article 82 of the EC Treaty). An undertaking is in a dominant position when it has a substantial proportion of a market and can evade normal competition on it. It is then forbidden to make abusive use of its dominance, e.g. by charging excessive or unduly low prices or practising discrimination between commercial partners.
The Commission may impose large fines on undertakings engaging in illegal business practices.
Since 1 May 2004, the updated Community antitrust rules have allowed the national competition authorities to enforce the Community rules on agreements and dominance abuse in the same way as the Commission.
Kontrolado de la aplikado de la Komunuma leĝaro
en:Monitoring the application of Community law
fr:Contrôle de l'application du droit communautaire
nl:Controle op de toepassing van het Gemeenschapsrecht
de:Kontrolle der Anwendung des Gemeinschaftsrechts
The task of monitoring the application of Community law is carried out by the European Commission as the guardian of the Treaties. Since the European Union is based on law, such monitoring is essential to ensure compliance with and proper application of Community law by and in the Member States. In exercising its monitoring function, the Commission also takes care to safeguard the role which is assigned to national authorities, particularly the courts, in this area.
The Commission gathers information and then warns and penalises Member States if they fail to comply with the Community Treaties. Poor compliance or non-compliance with the Treaties may result from administrative oversight, technical difficulties in applying the text, difficulties of implementation or from concerns over how certain sectors of public opinion may react.
If a Member State has failed to fulfil its obligations, the Commission may deliver a reasoned opinion after giving the State concerned an opportunity to submit its observations. If this opinion remains without effect, the Commission may bring the case before the Court of Justice (infringement proceedings against a State under Article 226 of the Treaty establishing the European Community).
In this connection, the Commission may ask the Court to impose a financial penalty on the Member State concerned if the latter has not complied with its reasoned opinion. This power greatly increases its ability to monitor proper application of Community law.
In addition, publication of the Commission's annual reports on the application of Community law are an expression of the desire for transparency in dealings not only with complainants but also with citizens and members of parliament.
Plisimpligo de la leĝdonado
en:Simplification of legislation
nl:Vereenvoudiging van de wetgeving
de:Vereinfachung der Rechtsvorschriften
Simplifying legislation means weeding out the superfluous by rigorously applying the principles of necessity and proportionality. The exercise mainly involves the recasting and formal or informal consolidation of legislation.
This concept has grown in importance in relation to the internal market since the White Paper on the Completion of the Single Market. It was highlighted by the Edinburgh European Council in 1992. Over the past decade a concentrated effort has been made to establish a market giving priority to the four freedoms, but this has meant a wealth of European legislation, simplification of which has now become a priority in order to ensure that Community action is transparent and effective. The pilot programme (Simplification of Legislation for the Internal Market — SLIM) covering four specific areas was launched in May 1996 and has been reinforced by a multiannual programme on the simplification and updating of Community legislation adopted by the European Commission in February 2003.
In response to the declaration on the quality of the drafting of Community legislation appended to the Final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference (1997), an interinstitutional agreement defining the guidelines for improving the quality of the drafting of legislation was adopted in December 1998.
A new interinstitutional agreement which goes beyond drafting quality alone and is entitled "Better Lawmaking" was adopted in December 2003.
The European Constitution currently being ratified provides for reinforcing the subsidiarity and proportionality principles with a view to simplification. It also simplifies legal instruments (reducing their number) and legislative procedures (with codecision becoming the general practice). The text of the Constitution itself has been written with a concern for readability and clarity to help the general public understand it.
en:European framework laws
Commission White Papers are documents containing proposals for Community action in a specific area. In some cases they follow a Green Paper published to launch a consultation process at European level. When a White Paper is favourably received by the Council, it can lead to an action programme for the Union in the area concerned.
Examples are the White Papers on Completion of the Internal Market (1985), on Growth, Competitiveness, Employment (1993) and on European Governance (2001). More recently, the White Paper on Services of General Interest (2004) and that on a European Communication Policy (2006) have also moulded the development of Community policies.
provi persvadi politikistojn, registaron k.s. pri laokazigindeco aŭ malhelpindeco de io, pri "ŝanĝindeco de leĝo k.s.(vaste uzata, sed ne-NPIV-a)
In the light of enlargement, solutions have been put forward for maintaining the current balance between "large" and "small" countries in decision-making in the Council of Ministers. Maintaining the present system of weighting of votes in the Council after enlargement could produce a qualified majority representing only a minority of the population of the European Union. For this reason, the Member States with the highest populations wanted to see a reweighting or double majority system which would ensure that a majority in the Council represented a majority not only of Member States but also of the population of the Union.
The Treaty of Nice 2001, which set out to reform the operation of the Community institutions in the run-up to enlargement, redefines the qualified majority in terms of a double or even triple majority. While the reweighting of votes works in favour of the large Member States, the qualified majority must also be a majority of the Member States. This is combined with a system known as the "demographic safety net" which means that each Member State can request verification of whether the qualified majority represents at least 62% of the population of the Union. If this condition is not fulfilled, the decision cannot be adopted. These new rules entered into force on 1 November 2004.
The European Constitution currently being ratified provides for a new qualified majority system to enter into force from 1 November 2009, involving a majority both of the Member States and of the population. The qualified majority will be secured where there is a majority of 55% of the Member States (minimum 15) representing at least 65% of the Union's population.
A qualified majority (QM) is the number of votes required in the Council for a decision to be adopted when issues are being debated on the basis of Article 205(2) of the EC Treaty.
Following the 2000 Inter Governmental Conference and the Nice Treaty, the number of votes allocated to each Member State has been re-weighted, in particular for those States with larger populations, so that the legitimacy of the Council's decisions can be safeguarded in terms of their demographic representativeness. After 1 November 2004, following enlargement of the Union, the QM went up to 232 votes out of a total of 321, representing a majority of the Member States. Moreover, a Member State may request verification that the QM represents at least 62% of the total population of the Union. If this is not the case, the decision is not adopted.
As the various institutional reforms have taken effect, QM voting (QMV) has replaced unanimous voting, which is less effective for developing an operational Community policy (veto risk).
The European Constitution currently being ratified provides for 45 new QMV situations. From 1 November 2009 the qualified majority will be based on a twofold-majority, requiring votes in favour from at least 55% of the Member States accounting for at least 65% of the Union's population. To ensure that the most populous Member States cannot block decisions, there will have to be a blocking minority of at least four Member States. Otherwise, the QM will be presumed to be met even if the population test is failed.
fr: modalités de fonctionnement
de:Europäischer Bürgerbeauftragter (Ombudsmann)
The position of Ombudsman was established by the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht, 1992) to ensure sound administration and administrative transparency at EU institutional level.
The Ombudsman is appointed by the European Parliament after each election for the duration of Parliament's term of office (five years).
He is empowered to receive complaints from any citizen of the Union or any natural or legal person residing in a Member State concerning instances of maladministration in the activities of the Community institutions or bodies (with the exception of the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance). For example, complaints may be based on lack or denial of access to information, on unjustified administrative delay, on unfairness or discrimination, or on lack of transparency.
The Ombudsman can open an investigation on his own initiative or following a complaint. Complaints can be submitted to the Ombudsman directly or through a Member of the European Parliament.
Where the Ombudsman establishes an instance of maladministration he refers the matter to the institution concerned, conducts an investigation, seeks a solution to redress the problem and, if necessary, submits draft recommendations to which the institution is required to reply in the form of a detailed opinion within three months. If the institution concerned does not agree to the proposed recommendations, the Ombudsman may in no case mandate a solution. However, he will be able to submit a special report on the question to the European Parliament so that it can take the appropriate measures.
Every year, the Ombudsman gives the European Parliament a report on all his investigations.
"Homa-komputila interagado per pluraj datumspecoj(en pluraj datummedioj): teksto; senmova aŭ moviĝanta bildo, sonoktp" (Komputada leksikono, Sergio Pokrovskij, 1995-2003)
fr:Pays candidats à l'adhésion
Candidate country status is conferred by the European Council on the basis of an opinion from the European Commission, drawn up following an application for membership by the country concerned.
However, candidate country status does not give a right to join the Union automatically. The Commission scrutinises the application in the light of the accession criteria (Copenhagen criteria), while the accession process starts with the European Council decision to open accession negotiations.
Depending on their circumstances, candidate countries may be required to institute a reform process in order to bring their legislation into line with the Community acquis and to strengthen their infrastructure and administration if necessary. The accession process is based on the pre-accession strategy, which provides instruments such as financial aid.
Accession depends on the progress made by the candidate countries, which is regularly assessed and monitored by the Commission.
Vocational training policy is based on Article 150 of the Treaty establishing the European Community, which provides that: "The Community shall implement a vocational training policy which shall support and supplement the action of the Member States, while fully respecting the responsibility of the Member States for the content and organisation of vocational training".
Vocational training is an essential element of the Lisbon Strategy which contributes to employment. Following the Bruges initiative of the senior civil servants responsible for vocational training (October 2001), an enhanced cooperation process was initiated in the education and vocational training field. The Copenhagen Declaration (2002) and the Maastricht Communiqué (2004) reasserted the priorities of transparency, recognition and training quality and set out priorities at national level.
Two important schemes were devised: Europass-Training (1998), which described skills acquired by training abroad, and Europass (2004), which combines five documents aimed at providing a clear and simple picture of the qualifications and skills of citizens throughout Europe.
The Leonardo da Vinci sectoral programme, as part of the action programme for education and life-long learning is the funding vehicle for training activities. It seeks to support and supplement the action taken by the Member States, by promoting transnational partnership and mobility, innovation and quality of training and also the European dimension of training systems and practice.
The European agencies and bodies active in the field of training are:
Malferma kunordiga metodo
en:Open method of coordination
fr:Méthode ouverte de coordination
The open method of coordination (OMC), created as part of employment policy and the Luxembourg process, has been defined as an instrument of the Lisbon strategy (2000).
The OMC provides a new framework for cooperation between the Member States, whose national policies can thus be directed towards certain common objectives. Under this intergovernmental method, the Member States are evaluated by one another (peer pressure), with the Commission's role being limited to surveillance. The European Parliament and the Court of Justice play virtually no part in the OMC process.
The open method of coordination takes place in areas which fall within the competence of the Member States, such as employment, social protection, social inclusion, education, youth and training.
It is based principally on:
Depending on the areas concerned, the OMC involves so-called "soft law" measures which are binding on the Member States in varying degrees but which never take the form of directives, regulations or decisions. Thus, in the context of the Lisbon strategy, the OMC requires the Member States to draw up national reform plans and to forward them to the Commission. However, youth policy does not entail the setting of targets, and it is up to the Member States to decide on objectives without the need for any European-level coordination of national action plans.
Komunumaj kaj interregistaraj metodoj
en:Community and intergovernmental methods
fr:Méthodes communautaire et intergouvernementale
nl:Communautaire en intergouvernementele methoden
The Community method is the expression used for the institutional operating mode set up in the first pillar of the European Union. It proceeds from an integration logic with due respect for the subsidiarity principle, and has the following salient features:
It contrasts with the intergovernmental method of operation used in the second and third pillars, which proceeds from an intergovernmental logic of cooperation and has the following salient features:
Libera moviĝo de personoj (Vizo,azilo, enmigrado kaj aliaj decidkampoj);
Libera cirkulado de personoj
en:Free movement of persons (visas, asylum, immigration and other policies)
fr:Libre circulation des personnes (visas, asile, immigration et autres politiques)
nl:Vrij verkeer van personen (visa, asiel, immigratie en ander beleidsterreinen)
de:Freier Personenverkehr (Visa, Asyl, Einwanderung und andere Politiken)
Title IV of the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty) sets out the European Union's policy on "visas, asylum, immigration and other policies related to free movement of persons". These areas of Community action are linked to the progressive institution of an area of freedom, security and justice and cover the following:
Following a five-year transition period after the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam (May 1999), the Commission has sole right of initiative and the codecision procedure applies, except that in certain areas, such as judicial cooperation in family law matters, the Council still acts by unanimous decision and the European Parliament is only consulted.
The powers of the Court of Justice of the European Communities are more limited than usual. For example, it cannot rule on measures relating to maintenance of public order or homeland security.
Before being incorporated into the EC Treaty by the Treaty of Amsterdam, these fields used to fall under Title VI of the Treaty on European Union (third pillar). The Treaty of Amsterdam has "communitised" them, bringing them within the legal framework of the first pillar.
The European Constitution now being ratified provides for policies on border controls, visas, asylum and immigration to become common policies.
NATO ( NordAtlantika TraktatOrganizo = Organizaĵo de Nord-Atlantika Traktato)
Organizaĵo de Nord-Atlantika Traktato (NATO, aŭ la Atlantiko Alianco) estis fondita de La nordo Atlantiko Traktato, kiu ankaŭ nomiĝis la Traktaton de Vaŝingtono, subskribita la 4-an de Aprilo 1949, kaj havas ĝian sidejon en Bruselo. Ĝi aktuale havas 26 membrojn, post sinsekvajn ploivastigojn:
La EU politiko respektas la NATO-devontigojn de la koncernaj Membroŝtatoj. La komuna politiko pri sekureco kaj defendo estas difinita en tiu kadro.
Renovigita NATO (Organizaĵo de Nord-Atlantika Traktato) temas pri procezo de redifino de la misioj kaj funkciado de NATO. Tiuj procezo karakteriziĝas per rekono de Eŭropa identeco pri defendo, per fortigo de la Eŭropa komponanto de la transatlantika sekurecsistemo, per nova rolo de la OEU (Orienta Eŭropa Unio), kaj per perspektivo de plivastiĝo de NATO al Oriento.
Tiu procezo estas akompanata de plifortigo de NATO-rilatoj kun aliaj landoj tra partneradoj por paco kaj tra la nord-atlantika Kunlaboro-Konsilio (NAKK). Grava defio tiurilate estas starigi firman, stabilan kaj daŭran partneradon kun Rusio kaj Ukrajno.
Natura 2000 Eŭropa naturprotekta zonaro
Natura 2000 estas aro de Membroŝtataj areoj en kiuj vegetaĵaj kaj bestaj specioj kaj iliaj vivlokoj devas esti protektataj. Protektaj aranĝoj estas preskribitaj en la Instrukcioj nomitaj "birdoj" (1979) kaj "Vivlokoj" (1992).
Komunuma leĝo difinas la bestaj kaj vegetaĵaj specioj kaj la vivlokoj kiuj estas interesaj pro ilia malofteco aŭ malfortikeco, kaj precipe la specioj kaj vivlokoj minacitaj je malapero. Post propono de la Membroŝtatoj, la Komisiono difinas la lokojn kie la specioj kaj vivlokoj estas protektataj. Tiuj areoj estas klasifikitaj laŭ sep biogeografiaj regionoj de EU (Alpa, Atlantika, Boreala, Kontinenta, Makaronezia, Mediteranea kaj Panonia).
La reto konsistas el areoj de Aparte Protektitaj Areoj por la konservado de pli ol 180 birdaj specioj kaj subspecioj kaj Aparte Konservendaj Areoj por la konservado de pli ol 250 specoj de vivlokoj, 200 bestaj specioj kaj super 430 vegetaĵaj specioj. Hodiaŭ, Natura 2000 konsistigas super 20% de la landa areo de EU.
La Membroŝtatoj respondecas pri la administrado de tiuj lokoj kaj devas certigi la konservadon de la specioj kaj vivlokoj difinitaj en la Komunuma leĝo. Dum homaj agadoj, kiel agrikulturo, ankoraŭ estas permesitaj en tiuj lokoj, ili devas akordiĝi kun la celo de la konservado.
OLAF (Office européen de lutte antifraude)
OLAF (Eŭropa kontraŭfrauda ofico)
La Eŭropa Kontraŭfraŭdofico respondecas ekde la 1-a de Junio 1999 por kontraŭbatali fraŭdon malprofite al la Eŭropunia buĝeto.
Kreita de Eŭropa Komisiono Decido, OLAF anstataŭigis UCLAF (Unité de coordination de la lutte antifraude = Kunordiga Unuo Kontraŭ Fraŭdo ) , kreita en 1988 kun mandato limigita al la Eŭropa Komisiono.
La nova Ofico rajtas prienketi la administradon kaj financadon de ĉiuj Uniaj institucioj kaj organoj kun absoluta operacia sendependeco. Tiu sendependeco estas garantiita de:
La kondiĉoj por la internaj enketoj faritaj de OLAF por batali kontraŭ fraŭdo, korupto kaj alia kontraŭleĝa agado kiu malprofitas al la financaju interesoj de la Eŭropaj Komunumoj, estis preskribitaj en interinstitucia interkonsento de majo 1999 inter la Parlamento, la Konsilio kaj la Komisiono. Tiu interkonsento etendas la potencojn de la Ofico al oinkluzivo de gravaj kazoj de profesia miskondukto de respondeculoj kaj aliaj oficistoj kiuj povas okazigi disciplinajn aŭ punajn persekvoj. Pluraj regularoj pritraktas la sciigo de neregulaĵoj kaj la repago de sumoj malĝuste elspezitaj. Aliaj regularoj preskribis la proceduron sekvendan dum enketoj kaj operacioj, kaj ankaŭ dum surlokaj kontroloj.
Genetike modifitaj organismoj
en:Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
fr:Organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM)
nl:Genetisch gemodificeerde organismen (ggo's)
de:Gentechnisch veränderte Organismen (GVO)
GMOs are organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered not by reproduction and/or natural recombination but by the introduction of a modified gene or a gene from another variety or species.
There has been Community legislation on GMOs since 1998. EU action is designed to protect human health and the environment while following the rules of the single market. It deals with the use, dissemination, marketing and traceability of GMOs both in food intended for human consumption and in animal feed. It also concerns the implementation of the provisions on trans-boundary movements of GMOs laid down in the Cartagena Protocol on Biodiversity.
In 2004, after five years with no new marketing authorisations, the Commission authorised the placing on the market of certain GMO foods or foods containing GMOs and the marketing and growing of GMO seeds.
Before being placed on the market GMOs must first undergo a very strict assessment process. They are then labelled in accordance with labelling and product traceability requirements.
The reference laboratory for GMO assessment is the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC). It coordinates the European network of reference laboratories for GMOs and works on detecting, identifying and quantifying the presence of GMOs in foodstuffs. The European Food Safety Authority also gives scientific opinions on GMOs.
Komuna merkatorganizado de agrikulturaj produktoj
en:Common organisation of agricultural markets (COM)
fr:Organisations communes des marchés agricoles (OCM)
nl:Gemeenschappelijke marktordening voor landbouwproducten
The common market organisations (CMOs) represent the first pillar of the common agricultural policy (CAP). They are the fundamental market regulation tool governing the production of and trade in agricultural products in all the Member States of the European Union by:
Since the reform of the CAP in 2003, most CMOs have been subject to the new system of a single farm payment and decoupling. The Member States which joined the Union on 1 May 2004 participate directly in the new system. Changes have also been made to crisis management arrangements and environmental classification of farms.
en:the NorthAtlantic Treaty Organisation
fr: l’Organisation du traité del’Atlantique Nord
filozofiajkaj nekonfesiaj organizoj
en:philosophical and non-confessional organisations.
fr:organisations philosophiques et non confessionnelles
La konsultaj organoj de la Unio
en:The Union’s advisory bodies
fr: les organes consultatifs de l'Union
Stabileca kaj kresk(ig)a pakto
en:Stability and Growth Pact
fr:Pacte de stabilité et de croissance
nl:Stabiliteits- en groeipact
de:Stabilitäts- und Wachstumspakt
The Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) pertains to the third stage of economic and monetary union (EMU), which began on 1 January 1999. It is intended to ensure that the Member States maintain budgetary discipline after the single currency has been introduced.
In formal terms, the Pact comprises a European Council resolution (adopted at Amsterdam on 17 June 1997) and two Council Regulations of 7 July 1997 laying down detailed technical arrangements (one on the surveillance of budgetary positions and the coordination of economic policies and the other on implementing the excessive deficit procedure). Following discussions on operation of the SGP, the two regulations were amended in June 2005.
In the medium term, the Member States undertook to pursue the goal of a balanced or nearly balanced budget and to provide the Council and Commission with a stability programme by 1 March 1999 (and update it annually thereafter). Similarly, States not taking part in the third stage of EMU, i.e. those that have not (yet) introduced the euro, are required to submit a convergence programme.
The Stability and Growth Pact opens the way for the Council to penalise any participating Member State that fails to take appropriate measures to end an excessive deficit (the "excessive deficit procedure"). Initially, the penalty would take the form of a non-interest-bearing deposit with the Community, but it could be converted into a fine if the excessive deficit is not corrected within two years. However, there is no fixed rule concerning these penalties: they are subject to assessment of the circumstances by the Council.
The European Parliament is the assembly of the representatives of the 492 million Union citizens. Since 1979 they have been elected by direct universal suffrage and today total 785, distributed between Member States by reference to their population.
The European Parliament's main functions are as follows:
The Treaty of Amsterdam (in force since 1999) boosted Parliament's powers by considerably extending the codecision procedure. The Treaty of Nice, which entered into force in 2003, also enhanced Parliament's role as co-legislator by extending the codecision procedure and granted Parliament a right to bring actions before the Court of Justice of the European Communities.
The European Constitution currently being ratified also provides for stronger powers for Parliament as co-legislator. The codecision procedure is to be extended to new areas and Parliament is to be given equal decision-making powers in budgetary matters with the Council. From 2009, the number of Members of the European Parliament may not exceed 750.
de:Parlamente der Mitgliedstaaten
The Conference of European Community Affairs Committees (COSAC), consisting of representatives from relevant committees of the national parliaments and Members of the European Parliament, has met every six months since 1989.
With the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the European Union acquired competence in areas which had traditionally been a national preserve, such as justice and home affairs. For this reason, the importance of exchanges between national parliaments and the European Parliament was underlined in a declaration on the role of national parliaments in the European Union.
In this declaration appended to the Maastricht Treaty, the national governments were asked to ensure that their parliaments received Commission proposals in good time for information or possible examination. The declaration also recommended that contacts between the European Parliament and the national parliaments should be stepped up in order to make it easier for the national parliaments to be involved in the Community process and to exercise better democratic control.
Under the Treaty of Amsterdam, a Protocol on the role of national parliaments was annexed to the Treaty on European Union. It stipulates that all Commission consultation documents (green and white papers and communications) must be promptly forwarded to the national parliaments.
The national parliaments have a period of six weeks to discuss a legislative proposal, from the date when the Commission makes it available to the European Parliament and the Council up to the date when it is placed on the Council's agenda.
COSAC now also has the right to submit to the Union institutions any contributions which it deems appropriate and to examine any proposal for a legislative instrument relating to the establishment of the area of freedom, security and justice which might have a direct bearing on the rights and freedoms of individuals.
The European Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, envisages a greater role for national parliaments in the working of the European Union. The transparency of Council proceedings will in particular make it easier for national parliaments to monitor their government's position on the topics on the agenda. Furthermore, the introduction of the early-warning system for compliance with the subsidiarity principle will give them a direct means of influencing the legislative process. The system will ensure that they are informed about every new Commission initiative. If a third of national parliaments believe that a proposal infringes the subsidiarity principle, the Commission will be compelled to reconsider it.
fr:Partenariat pour l'adhésion
nl:Partnerschap voor de toetreding
Accession partnerships are a pre-accession strategy instrument which determines the candidate countries' particular needs on which pre-accession assistance should be targeted and provides a framework for:
An accession partnership is established for each candidate country to provide guidance and encouragement during preparations for membership. To this end, each candidate country draws up a National Programme for the Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA), which sets out a timetable for putting the partnership into effect. Each candidate country also draws up an action plan for strengthening its administrative and judicial capacities.
The accession partnership may also be revised in the light of new developments, especially any new priorities identified during the pre-accession process.
The Commission is required to consult various social partners when it wishes to submit proposals in this field (article 138 of the EC Treaty). This social dialogue occurs via the three main cross-industry organisations representing the social partners at European level:
In addition to these three European cross-industry organisations, there are many other socio-professional groups representing specific or sectoral interests.
It is the Commission's task to promote consultation of the social partners and take any relevant measures to facilitate their dialogue by ensuring balanced support for the parties.
Before submitting proposals in the field of social policy, the Commission consults the social partners on the possible direction of EU action.
The social partners also play an important role in the European Economic and Social Committee, where they sit alongside other representatives of civil society.
The role of the social partners and of independent social dialogue is enshrined, for the first time, in the constitutional Treaty, which is in the process of being ratified.
Article I-48 states that the European Union recognises and promotes the role of the social partners, facilitating dialogue between them and respecting their autonomy. It also reiterates the role of the Tripartite Social Summit for Growth and Employment in contributing to the social dialogue.
fr:Opting out (clause d'exemption)
nl:Opting out (uitstapmogelijkheid)
de:Opting out (Nichtbeteiligung)
Opting out is an exemption granted to a country that does not wish to join the other Member States in a particular area of Community cooperation as a way of avoiding a general stalemate. The United Kingdom, for instance, did not wish to take part in the third stage of economic and monetary union (EMU) and similar clauses were agreed with Denmark as regards EMU, defence and European citizenship. The Schengen acquis has similarly been adopted only partially, as Ireland, the United Kingdom and Denmark can decide on a case-by-case basis whether or not to participate fully or only partially in the planned measures.
In July 2000, the European Commission proposed the creation of a Community patent to allow inventors to obtain a single patent legally valid throughout the European Union. A single Community patent would considerably reduce the burden on businesses and the cost of obtaining a patent, thus making Europe more competitive and encouraging innovation.
The benefits of a Community patent system would be:
The proposed system would also remove the obstacles associated with the European patent system, which has been in place since 1973. The European patent is a single entity only until the moment of its issue, when it is transformed into as many national patents as there are countries mentioned in the application. After issue, the European patent is subject to national laws, and there is no common authority to harmonise the case law at European level.
Nevertheless, the aim of the Community patent is not to replace the existing national systems and the European system but rather to coexist with them. Inventors would remain free to choose which patent protection would be most appropriate.
The creation of a Community patent system is a sensitive issue as, until now, the project has always been blocked at the Council of Ministers. The main stumbling block is the question of translating the patent claims. It is therefore impossible to know when the Community patent will be available.
Jurpersoneco de la unio
en:Legal personality of the Union
fr:Personnalité juridique de l'Union
nl:Rechtspersoonlijkheid van de Unie
de:Rechtspersönlichkeit der Union
The two Communities (European Community and Euratom) making up the European Union each have legal personality. However, the Treaty on European Union does not contain any provisions on the Union's legal personality even though the Union comprises the two Communities and two areas of intergovernmental cooperation, namely common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters.
The European Community has the power to conclude and negotiate agreements in line with its external powers, to become a member of an international organisation and to have delegations in non-member countries.
The question of the Union's legal personality has essentially been raised in connection with international relations, especially the power to conclude treaties or accede to agreements or conventions. The Union does not have institutionalised treaty-making powers, i.e. international capacity to enter into agreements with non-member countries. However, it pursues its own objectives at international level, whether by concluding agreements through the Council of the European Union or by asserting its position on the international stage, especially in connection with CFSP.
The Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, provides for the European Union to have legal personality.
natura aŭ jura persono
en:natural or legal person
fr:personne physique ou morale
The financial perspective forms the framework for Community expenditure over a period of several years. It is the product of an interinstitutional agreement between the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission and indicates the maximum volume and the composition of the foreseeable Community expenditure. It is adjusted annually by the Commission to take account of prices and the development of Community GNP. However, it should be noted that the financial perspective is not a multiannual budget since the annual budgetary procedure remains essential to determine the actual amount of expenditure and the breakdown between the different budget headings.
To date, four interinstitutional agreements of this type have been concluded, the first in 1988, the second in 1992, the third in 1999, and the fourth in 2006:
The European Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, incorporates the financial perspective for the first time in a Treaty under the name of the "multiannual financial framework". This framework will be adopted unanimously by the Council following approval by the European Parliament. However, However, there is a "bridging" clause which gives the European Council the option of deciding unanimously to change over to majority voting.
This multiannual financial framework is intended to ensure that expenditure develops in an orderly fashion, always remaining within the limits of the Union's own resources. It places a ceiling on annual expenditure in the Union's major spheres of activity for a period of at least five years.
Pilieroj de Eŭropa Unio
en:Pillars of the European Union
fr:Piliers de l'Union européenne
nl:Pijlers van de Europese Unie
de:Pfeiler der Europäische Union
The concept of "pillars" is generally used in connection with the Treaty on European Union. Three pillars form the basic structure of the European Union, namely:
The Treaty of Amsterdam transferred some of the fields covered by the third pillar to the first pillar (free movement of persons).
The three pillars function on the basis of different decision-making procedures: the Community procedure for the first pillar, and the intergovernmental procedure for the other two. In the case of the first pillar, only the Commission can submit proposals to the Council and Parliament, and a qualified majority is sufficient for a Council act to be adopted. In the case of the second and third pillars, this right of initiative is shared between the Commission and the Member States, and unanimity in the Council is generally necessary.
The European Constitution, which is currently being ratified, provides for a complete recasting of this system. The three pillars are to be merged, although specific procedures will be retained for the common foreign and security policy (CFSP), including defence policy.
per kvalifikita plimulto
en:by qualified majority
fr:à la majorité qualifiée
Plifortigita kvalifikita plimulto
en:Reinforced qualified majority
fr:Majorité qualifiée renforcée
nl:Versterkte gekwalificeerde meerderheid
de:Verstärkte qualifizierte Mehrheit
When the Council acts without a Commission Proposal being necessary (in the fields of foreign policy and common security or police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters), the qualified majority must include at least two thirds of the Member States.
At the 1996 Intergovernmental Conference, which led to the adoption of the Amsterdam Treaty, the idea of a reinforced qualified majority was brought up both by a large number of national delegations and by the European Commission.
This proposal stems from the conviction that if the unanimity requirement is maintained, it would all too often result in stalemate in an enlarged Union. Unanimity might therefore be replaced in certain cases by a reinforced qualified majority that is greater than the normal percentage of votes generally required for majority voting.
The European Constitution, which is in the process of being ratified, provides for the threshold for a qualified majority to be raised to 72% for all acts other than those proposed by the European Commission or by the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The European Union currently has 25 Member States. In addition to the first six Member States -- Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands -- 19 countries have acceded to the Union. These are:
Bulgaria and Romania are in the course of joining the Union. On 25 April 2005, these two countries signed a treaty providing for their accession, in principle on 1 January 2007, or perhaps 1 January 2008.
Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey have the status of candidate countries. Accession negotiations with Croatia and Turkey opened on 3 October 2005.
The countries of the Western Balkans which are engaged in the stabilisation and association process have the status of potential candidate countries. Apart from Croatia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, which are candidate countries, these are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia, including Kosovo, under United Nations tutelage.
en:Europol (European Police Office)
fr:Europol (Office européen de police)
nl:Europol (Europese Politiedienst)
de:Europol (Europäisches Polizeiamt)
Europol is responsible for improving cooperation between the Member States' police and customs authorities.
The idea of a European Police Office was first raised at the Luxembourg European Council (June 1991). Provision for the Office was made in the Treaty of Maastricht, and it began its activities in January 1994 as the Europol Drugs Unit (EDU).
The Convention establishing Europol was signed in July 1995 and entered into force on 1 October 1998. Europol's field of competence is the combating of crime and terrorism, but it is not a European police force as such. It is an instrument at the service of the Member States designed to help them deal with criminal phenomena. In practical terms, Europol's work consists of facilitating the flow of information between national authorities and providing the latter with crime analyses. Europol participates in joint investigation teams comprising representatives of the various Member State authorities and provides the information they need on the spot.
The European Convention currently being ratified provides for the Office's powers to be strengthened to allow it to coordinate, organise and conduct investigations jointly with national authorities. The Constitution also provides that the European Parliament is to exercise control over Europol together with the national parliaments. Europol must abide by the Charter of Fundamental Rights and its activities will be subject to judicial review by the Court of Justice.
The Community's audiovisual policy must respect various — sometimes contradictory — interests and priorities, such as competition rules (especially regarding State aid), the principles of public service or the enhancement of European culture. The European audiovisual market is also facing a number of problems, including:
The Community's action in the audiovisual field has developed in two broad directions:
The Directive is currently being revised with a view to updating the existing rules and making them more flexible.
The programme currently in place is MEDIA 2007, which has been allocated a budget of almost EUR 755 million and is to cover the period 2007–2013.
The protection of minors and human dignity in audiovisual and information services constitutes another priority. In December 2006, the Council and the European Parliament thus adopted a recommendation aiming to encourage government authorities and stakeholders to intensify their actions in this field.
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) implies close coordination of national economic policies, which have thus become a matter of common concern. In practical terms, the Council, acting by a qualified majority on a recommendation from the Commission, formulates draft guidelines that are sent to the European Council. In the light of the latter's conclusions, the Council, again acting by qualified majority, adopts a recommendation setting out the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPG) of the of the Member States and the Community and informs the European Parliament (Article 99 of the EC Treaty). These annual broad guidelines are the central element of coordination for the Union's economic policies.
In addition to these guidelines, the EC Treaty lays down other economic policy provisions in Title VII, including:
The EC Treaty also lays down the institutional provisions applicable to the European Central Bank and the transitional provisions necessary for the implementation of the various stages of EMU.
The European Constitution, which is now in the process of ratification, gives Member States belonging to the euro area greater autonomy to settle certain issues amongst themselves. In addition, the Commission's role will be enhanced in the excessive-deficit procedure. Finally, the Constitution will simplify the existing texts significantly.
Ĉu politiko DE entreprenoj aŭ Politiko (ekz. de registaro) PRI entreprenoj/ entreprenado?
Rimarku, ke la angla "politics" en la nl estas "beleid". Ĉu "gvidado" pli taŭgus?
The objective of enterprise policy is to produce an environment that is more conducive to the creation and development of businesses, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), within the European Union.
The main focus of this policy is on:
Enterprise policy thus contributes to sustainable growth and job creation. It is involved in achieving the objective set by the European Council in Lisbon on 23 and 24 March 2000 when the Heads of State and Government declared that the European Union was to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world by 2010.
EU enterprise policy helps to support and coordinate the Member States' activities. The Union can neither replace national competences nor harmonise national legislation and regulations.
Eŭropa sekurec- kaj defendpolitiko
en:European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)
fr:Politique européenne de sécurité et de défense (PESD)
nl:Europees veiligheids- en defensiebeleid (EVDB)
de:Europäische Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik (ESVP)
The European Union's European security and defence policy (ESDP) includes the gradual framing of a common defence policy which might in time lead to a common defence. The European security and defence policy (ESDP) aims to allow the Union to develop its civilian and military capacities for crisis management and conflict prevention at international level, thus helping to maintain peace and international security, in accordance with the United Nations Charter. The ESDP, which does not involve the creation of a European army, is developing in a manner that is compatible and coordinated with NATO.
The Maastricht Treaty (1992) was the first to include provisions on the Union's responsibilities in terms of security and the possibility of a future common defence policy. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam (1999), new tasks have been included in the Treaty on European Union (Title V). This important innovation relates to humanitarian and rescue operations, peacekeeping operations and the use of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking operations (known as "Petersberg tasks"). In addition to these civilian and military crisis management operations, the ESDP includes a "conflict prevention" component. The Political and Security Committee (PSC), the EU Military Committee (EUMC) and EU Military Staff (EUMS) are the permanent political and military structures responsible for an autonomous, operational EU defence policy. In December 1999, the Helsinki European Council established the "global objective", in other words that the Union must be able to deploy up to 60 000 persons within 60 days and for at least one year.
At the Göteborg European Council of June 2001, the European Council spoke of its willingness to improve EU capacities in the fields of conflict prevention and crisis management, making use of military and civilian means.
The Treaty of Nice (2001) gave the PSC charge of crisis management operations, although the Council retained responsibility.
The European Constitution, currently being ratified, clearly states the goal of establishing a genuine common European defence. It updates the Petersberg tasks and inserts two clauses: a mutual defence clause and a solidarity clause in the event of terrorist attacks or natural or man-made disasters. It also provides for military tasks to be assigned to a group of Member States or the establishment of a "permanent structured cooperation" in the defence field. These measures would allow some Member States to move faster towards the goal of a common European defence.
Komuna agrikultura politiko
en:Common agricultural policy (CAP)
fr:Politique agricole commune (PAC)
nl:Gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid (GLB)
The common agricultural policy is an area in which competence is shared between the European Union (EU) and the Member States. Under Article 33 of the Treaty establishing the European Community, its aims are to ensure reasonable prices for Europe's consumers and fair incomes for farmers, in particular through the common organisation of agricultural markets and by ensuring compliance with the principles adopted at the Stresa Conference in 1958, namely single prices, financial solidarity and Community preference.
The CAP is one of the most important EU policies (agricultural expenditure accounts for some 45% of the Community budget). Policy is decided by qualified majority voting in the Council and consultation of the European Parliament.
The CAP has fulfilled its main objective, which was to achieve food self-sufficiency in the Community. Nevertheless, major changes to policy soon proved necessary, in order to correct imbalances and over-production resulting from the CAP. Its objectives have thus changed in the course of time, and the instruments used have also evolved as a result of successive reforms (principally the 1992 McSharry reform and Agenda 2000).
The most recent reform, in June 2003, constituted a major development in the CAP. It brought the following innovations:
The reform also includes a revamp of the policy of common organisation of markets under the CAP. Several sectors have already been reformed: tobacco, hops, cotton, olive oil and sugar.
Komuna eksterlanda kaj sekureca politiko
en:Common foreign and security policy (CFSP)
fr:Politique étrangère et de sécurité commune (PESC)
nl:Gemeenschappelijk buitenlands en veiligheidsbeleid (GBVB)
The common foreign and security policy (CFSP) was established and is governed by Title V of the Treaty on European Union (EU). It replaced European Political Cooperation (EPC) and provides for the eventual framing of a common defence policy which might in time lead to a common defence.
The objectives of this second pillar of the Union are set out in Article 11 of the EU Treaty and are to be attained through specific legal instruments (joint action, common position) which have to be adopted unanimously in the Council. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam (1999), the European Union also has a new instrument at its disposal - the common strategy. The Treaty of Amsterdam also provided for qualified majority voting under certain conditions and, since it was signed, the CFSP field has been developing in practice at every European Council.
The Treaty of Nice (2001) introduced the possibility, under certain conditions, of establishing closer cooperation in the CFSP field for the implementation of joint actions and common positions. This closer cooperation may not be used for matters with military or defence implications.
The European Constitution, currently in the process of ratification, provides for the creation of the post of Foreign Affairs Minister whose role will consist in conducting the CFSP. The Minister will be assisted by a newly-created European External Action Service. The Constitution also provides for the transfer of the power of initiative in this area from the Commission to the new Minister. Unanimity will remain the rule but the bridging mechanism may be used to switch to qualified majority voting in certain areas which have no military or defence implications.
Once the Constitution has been ratified, the use of the legislative instruments under the CFSP will be excluded. The instruments of the CFSP will be restricted to European decisions and international agreements.
Enhanced cooperation may also be introduced in any area of the CFSP and no longer only for the implementation of a joint action or a common position. Unanimity will, however, always be required.
Komuna fiŝkapta politiko
en:Common fisheries policy
fr:Politique commune de la pêche
Although a common fisheries policy (CFP) was already provided for in the Treaty of Rome in 1957, "Blue Europe" did not become a common policy in the full sense of the term until 1983.
The CFP has the same legal basis (Articles 32-38 of the EC Treaty) as the common agricultural policy (CAP) and shares the same objectives: to increase productivity, stabilise markets and ensure security of supply and reasonable prices to the consumer. Like the CAP, the CFP is an area of responsibility that is shared by the European Union and the Member States.
Successive reforms have added the following aims to the initial goals of the CFP: sustainable exploitation of resources, protection of the environment, safeguards for a high level of human health protection and a contribution to economic and social cohesion.
In particular, protection of fish stocks and the marine environment is a key issue, given the threat posed by resource depletion.
The CFP operates on four levels:
The European Union is today seeking to put in place a fully-fledged maritime policy encompassing the fisheries, environmental and marine industry policies.
Komuna komerca politiko
en:Common commercial policy
fr:Politique commerciale commune
The common commercial policy is one of the main pillars of the European Union's relations with the rest of the world. It is an area of exclusive Community responsibility (Article 133 of the Treaty establishing the European Community), and is the pendant to the creation of a customs union of the Member States.
The common commercial policy implies uniform conduct of trade relations with third countries, in particular by means of a common customs tariff and common import and export regimes.
The Community supports the abolition of trade restrictions and customs barriers. To defend the Community market, it has at its disposal tools such as antidumping and anti-subsidy measures, the Trade Barriers Regulation and safeguard measures.
The Commission negotiates and concludes international agreements on behalf of the Community at the bilateral and multilateral levels. It plays an active part in the World Trade Organisation.
The European Union supports harmonious, liberalised trade serving the interests of all the international players, and especially the most disadvantaged countries. In this spirit, general and specific preferences for such countries are a major aspect of the common commercial policy.
en:Common transport policy
fr:Politique commune des transports
The goal of the common transport policy is to remove obstacles at the borders between Member States so as to facilitate the free movement of persons and goods.
To that end its prime objectives are to complete the internal market for transport, ensure sustainable development, manage funding programmes and spatial planning, improve safety and develop international cooperation. It is also concerned with laying down the conditions under which non-resident carriers may operate transport services within a Member State.
Since the Amsterdam Treaty entered into force, decisions have been taken under the codecision procedure, following consultation of the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.
Monetary policy is covered by Articles 105 to 111 (former Articles 105 to 109) of the EC Treaty. It is fundamental to economic and monetary union (EMU). Decision-making procedures vary according to the topics in hand:
The institutional provisions (Articles 112-115) and transitional provisions (Articles 116-124) of Title VII of the EC Treaty (economic and monetary policy - former Title VI) have their own special decision-making procedures which are separate from those identified here.
fr:la politique européenne de voisinage
fr:Voisinage (politique de)
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) seeks to establish special relations with the neighbouring countries in Eastern Europe, the Southern Mediterranean and the Southern Caucasus for which accession is not in prospect. It was instituted as early as 2003 to share the benefits of enlargement with the neighbouring countries and avoid the emergence of new divisions, and forms part of the European security strategy.
The ENP focuses promoting democracy, freedom, prosperity, security and stability while building on existing relations with the various neighbouring countries. However, the establishment of such special relations depends on a mutual interest in upholding common values: democracy, the rule of law, human rights, good governance, the principles of a market economy and sustainable development.
The policy is put into effect by means of bilateral action plans reflecting the needs of the neighbour concerned and the reciprocal interests of that country and the Union. These plans set out an agenda for a period of three to five years, covering political and economic reforms, closer alignment of legislation with that of the Community, participation in certain Community programmes and the development or strengthening of cooperation and dialogue.
The pre-ENP bilateral agreements serve as a framework for pursuing the policy. The neighbouring countries also benefit from financial and technical assistance, mainly through the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI) for the period 2007 - 2013 (replacing the TACIS and MEDA programmes from 2000 to 2006).
The Treaty of Amsterdam incorporated the Agreement on social policy signed by eleven Member States into the Treaty establishing the European Community, thus bringing a complicated situation to an end. Between 1993 and 1999, there were two distinct legal bases for social policy: the EC Treaty itself and a separate agreement that the United Kingdom had not signed. Now, all the measures are brought together in Title XI of the EC Treaty.
The social policy objectives defined in the EC Treaty and included in the text of the European Constitution were inspired by the 1961 European Social Charter and the 1989 Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers: promoting employment, improving working conditions, proper social protection, social dialogue, workforce training to achieve a high and sustainable level of employment and combating exclusion.
Moreover, according to a general clause created by the Constitution - which is currently in the process of ratification - the Union must, in the definition and implementation of its policies and actions, guarantee proper social protection and combat social exclusion.
The inclusion of the Charter of Fundamental Rights in the European Constitution reinforces the social dimension of Europe but does not create additional powers for the Union. However, it must be respected in the acts of the Member States and of the institutions when they implement EU law.
In the new system of powers created by the Constitution, social policy is a shared competence. Depending on the area in question, three cases are possible:
la komunan eksteran kaj sekurecan politikon de la Unio
en:the Union’s common foreign and security policy
fr: la politique de sécurité et dedéfense commune
Pondado de voĉoj en la konsilio
en:Weighting of votes in the Council
fr:Pondération des voix au Conseil
nl:Stemmenweging in de Raad
de:Stimmengewichtung im Rat
Qualified majority voting in the Council of the European Union is based on the principle of the weighting of votes. Under the current weighting system, the Member States with the largest populations have 27-29 votes, the medium-sized countries have 7-14 votes and the small countries 3 or 4 votes. A decision requires at least 255 out of 345 votes to be adopted.
The weighting arrangements are the result of a compromise between Member States that, although equal in law, differ in various respects. The number of votes allocated to a Member State is determined by the size of its population, with an adjustment that leads to relative over-representation of the countries with small populations.
In a Europe of 15, this system gave legitimacy to decisions, adopted by a qualified majority based on the broadest possible agreement.. The large countries could not combine to put the small countries in a minority, and vice versa.
With a view to enlargement, the 2000 Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) initiated a revision of the weighting of votes to ensure that the relative weight of the small and medium-sized countries is not out of proportion to the size of their population. As a result, the votes allocated to the most populous countries have increased relative to the others in order for the legitimacy of the Council's decisions to be maintained in terms of demographic representativeness. The current weighting of votes, enshrined in the Treaty of Nice, came into force on 1 November 2004.
The European Constitution, which is currently being ratified, will abolish the system of weighting of votes in the Council (allocation of one vote per Member State), replacing it with a new definition of qualified-majority voting.
Like tangible goods, intellectual creations can constitute property which is designated "intellectual property". Intellectual property traditionally covers two areas:
This field covers cultural, social and technological issues of great importance which have to be taken into account when drawing up a coherent policy in this area. Thus, on the question of industrial property, Community regulations have endeavoured to harmonise the conditions for the registration of trademarks and extend to holders the protection conferred by a single set of rules. A Regulation introducing a Community design was also adopted in December 2001. In order to encourage innovation, the Union is also working on the creation of a Community patent.
On the question of copyright and related rights, harmonised Community legislation was drawn up in areas where legal uncertainty was likely to dissuade holders from exploiting rights in certain territories (computer programmes and databases, satellite broadcasting and cable retransmission, rental right and lending right and certain related rights). European legislation was then adapted to take account of the new challenges posed by technological progress and the information society. Measures aimed at combating counterfeiting and piracy have moreover been taken at European level.
identigi operaciajn postulojn
en:to identify operational requirements
fr: identifier les besoins opérationnels
en:Common position (CFSP)
fr:Position commune (PESC)
nl:Gemeenschappelijk standpunt (GBVB)
The common position in the context of the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) is designed to make cooperation more systematic and improve its coordination. The Member States are required to comply with and uphold such positions which have been adopted unanimously at the Council.
For reasons of simplification, the European Constitution which is in the process of being ratified restricts CFSP instruments to European decisions and international agreements. Once the Constitution enters into force, common positions and their implementation will be based on European decisions (non-legislative instruments) adopted by the Council of Ministers.
kogna, socia kaj kultura studado de lingvo kajkomunikado (la vorto, ne la difino, aperas en Angla-Esperanta-Hungara etvortaro pri Lingvo kaj Komunikado, Koutny, 2003) preamblo
solena enkonduko al konstitucio, internacia akto ktp(Deklingva manlibro pri politiko, red. Stefan Maul, 1994)
Prezidanto de la eŭropunia komisiono
en:President of the European Commission
fr:Président de la Commission européenne
nl:Voorzitter van de Europese Commissie
de:Präsident der Europäischen Kommission
Article 214(2) of the Treaty establishing the European Community provides that the Council, meeting in the composition of Heads of State or Government and acting by a qualified majority, shall nominate the person it intends to appoint as President of the Commission and that the nomination shall be approved by the European Parliament. This procedure was laid down by the Treaty of Nice, whereas the Treaty of Amsterdam provided for the governments of the Member States to nominate that person by common accord, with the approval of Parliament.
The governments then designate the persons they intend to appoint as Members of the Commission, in agreement with the new President.
The President of the Commission has considerable powers under Article 217 of the EC Treaty to ensure that the College of Commissioners, after its enlargement following the accession of new Member States, acts consistently and efficiently.
He thus lays down the broad policy lines to be followed by the Commission in its work. He decides on the allocation of responsibilities among the Commissioners and any reshuffling of portfolios during the Commission's term of office.
He also, after approval by the College, appoints the Vice-Presidents, the number of which is not specified in the Treaty. He may further, after obtaining the approval of the College, require a Member of the Commission to resign.
The European Constitution now being ratified does not make any changes to the way in which the President is appointed. However, when the European Council proposes a candidate for the Presidency to the European Parliament, it must take account of the results of the European elections.
The President of the 2004-09 Commission is the former Portuguese Prime Minister José Manuel Durão Barroso, who succeeded Romano Prodi as head of the European executive.
la prezidanto de la Eŭropa Komisiono
en:the President of the European Commission
fr:le Président de la Commission européenne.
la prezidanto de la Eŭropa Konsilio
en:the President of the EuropeanCouncil
fr:le Président du Conseil européen
Prezidenteco de la eŭropunia konsilio
en:Presidency of the Council of the European Union
fr:Présidence du Conseil de l'Union européenne
nl:Voorzitterschap van de Raad van de Europese Unie
de:Vorsitz des Rates der Union
The Presidency of the Council of the European Union is organised on the basis of a half-yearly rotation system, under which each Member State holds the Presidency for a period of six months. The order of rotation is fixed by the Council of the European Union, acting unanimously.
Holding the Presidency is every Member State's duty, and a contribution towards the smooth operation of the Community institutions. The responsibilities of the Presidency are:
The European Constitution, which is currently being ratified, changes the current system by making a distinction between the Presidency of the Council of the Union and the Presidency of the European Council. It suggests that the European Council should be given its own Presidency through the creation a permanent post of President of the European Council, to be elected by the European Council for a term of two and a half years, renewable once.
In the case of the Presidency of the Council of the Union, the Constitution introduces a new system of "equal rotation". The provisions to this effect are set out not in the text of the Constitution but in a draft decision which will be adopted when the Constitution enters into force. Under this draft, the Presidency of the various configurations of the Council, apart from the Foreign Affairs Council (chaired by the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs), will be held by a team of three Member States for a period of 18 months. Each of them will chair Council meetings for a six-month period with the assistance of the other two, on the basis of a common programme.
principo de laŭleĝeco;
principo de leĝkonforma administrado
da:legalitetsprincip; princip om lovmaessig forvaltning
en:the principle of legality; the principle of legally valid administration
fr:principe de légalité
Principo de proporcieco
fr:Proportionnalité (Principe de)
de:Verhältnismäßigkeit (Grundsatz der)
Like the principle of subsidiarity, the principle of proportionality regulates the exercise of powers by the European Union, seeking to set within specified bounds the action taken by the institutions of the Union. Under this rule, the institutions' involvement must be limited to what is necessary to achieve the objectives of the Treaties. In other words, the extent of the action must be in keeping with the aim pursued.
This means that when various forms of intervention are available to the Union, it must, where the effect is the same, opt for the approach which leaves the greatest freedom to the Member States and individuals.
The principle of proportionality is clearly laid down in primary law under Article 5, third paragraph, of the Treaty establishing the European Community (TEC). A Protocol on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality, annexed to the TEC by the Treaty of Amsterdam, sets out the criteria for applying both these principles.
The principle of proportionality is incorporated into Article I-11.4 of the Constitution, currently undergoing ratification.
principo de proporcieco
en:the principle of proportionality.
fr:le principe de proportionnalité
principo de subsidiareco
en:the principle of subsidiarity
fr:le principe de subsidiarité
principo de transdono de kompetentoj;
principo de cedo de kompetentoj
en:the principle of conferral.
fr:le principe d'attribution
fr:Principe de précaution
The concept of the precautionary principle was first set out in a Commission communication adopted in February 2000 on recourse to the precautionary principle, in which it defined this concept and envisaged how it would be applied.
This text complements the White Paper on Food Safety (January 2000) and the agreement concluded in February 2000 in Montreal on the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.
In this document, the Commission sets out the specific cases where this principle is applicable:
In both cases, the risks are incompatible with the high level of protection sought by the European Union.
The Communication also sets out the three rules which need to be followed for the precautionary principle to be observed:
The Commission would also like to point out that the measures resulting from recourse to the precautionary principle may take the form of a decision to act or not to act, depending on the level of risk considered "acceptable". The Union had applied this precautionary principle in the area of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), for instance, with the adoption of a moratorium on their commercialisation between 1999 and 2004.
principoj de juro
en:principles of law
fr:principes de droit
Proceduro ĉe ekscesa deficito
en:Excessive deficit procedure
fr:Procédure de déficit excessif
nl:Procedure bij buitensporige tekorten
de:Verfahren bei einem übermäßigen Defizit
The excessive deficit procedure is governed by Article 104 of the Treaty establishing the European Community, under which the Member States are obliged to avoid excessive deficits in national budgets.
The Commission assesses the situation and the Council decides whether or not an excessive deficit exists. The Commission, which draws up a report in this connection, is required to take into account all the relevant factors (cyclical conditions, reforms, etc.) having a bearing on an excessive deficit.
When the Council decides that an excessive deficit exists in a Member State, it first of all makes recommendations to the State concerned, with a view to rectifying the situation within a given period. If the Member State fails to comply with these recommendations, the Council may instruct it to take appropriate measures for reducing the deficit. If necessary, the Council has the option of imposing penalties or fines and of inviting the European Investment Bank (EIB) to reconsider its lending policy towards the Member State concerned.
The reference value for the existence of an excessive deficit is 3% of gross domestic product (GDP). A Council Regulation adopted in 1997 is designed to speed up and clarify the implementation of the excessive deficit procedure.
fr:Procédure de l'avis conforme
The assent procedure (Article 192 of the Treaty establishing the European Community) was introduced by the European Single Act (1986). It requires the Council to obtain the European Parliament's assent before certain important decisions are taken. The assent principle is based on a single reading. Parliament may accept or reject a proposal but cannot amend it. If Parliament does not give its assent, the act in question cannot be adopted.
The assent procedure applies mainly to the accession of new Member States (Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union), association agreements and other fundamental agreements with third countries.
It is likewise required with regard to citizenship, the specific tasks of the European Central Bank (ECB), amendments to the Statutes of the European System of Central Banks and the ECB, the Structural and Cohesion Funds, and the uniform procedure for elections to the European Parliament (Article 190 of the EC Treaty).
Lastly, the European Parliament gives its assent for the application of sanctions imposed on a Member State for a serious and persistent breach of fundamental rights (Article 7 of the EU Treaty) and for closer cooperation in fields subject to the codecision procedure.
Parliament's assent is given by a majority of votes cast. However, a majority of Members is also required in two cases, namely the accession of a new Member State and the electoral procedure.
In order to simplify legislative procedures, the European Constitution, currently being ratified, includes the assent procedure, referred to as "consent", under "special legislative procedures". This procedure applies to European laws and framework laws.
fr:Procédure de l'avis simple (procédure de consultation)
de:Verfahren der einfachen Stellungnahme (Anhörungsverfahren)
The consultation procedure (Article 192 of the EC Treaty) enables the European Parliament to give its opinion on a proposal from the Commission. In the cases laid down by the Treaty, the Council must consult the European Parliament before voting on the Commission proposal and take its views into account. However, it is not bound by the Parliament's position but only by the obligation to consult it. Parliament must be consulted again if the Council deviates too far from the initial proposal. The powers of Parliament are fairly limited under this procedure, in so far as it can only hope that the Commission takes its amendments into account in an amended proposal.
Apart from the cases laid down by the Treaties, the Council has also undertaken to consult Parliament on most important questions. The consultation is optional. In addition, this consultation procedure is used for the adoption of non-mandatory instruments, especially recommendations and opinions issued by the Council and the Commission.
The European Constitution, currently being ratified, will bring the consultation procedure under the heading of "special legislative procedures". The procedure will be applicable to Council laws and framework laws adopted after consulting (obtaining the opinion of) the European Parliament.
fr:Procédure de codécision
The codecision procedure (Article 251 of the EC Treaty) was introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht. It gives the European Parliament the power to adopt instruments jointly with the Council of the European Union. The procedure comprises one, two or three readings. It has the effect of increasing contacts between the Parliament and the Council, the co-legislators, and with the European Commission. In practice, it has strengthened Parliament's legislative powers in the following fields: the free movement of workers, right of establishment, services, the internal market, education (incentive measures), health (incentive measures), consumer policy, trans-European networks (guidelines), environment (general action programme), culture (incentive measures) and research (framework programme).
The Treaty of Amsterdam has simplified the codecision procedure, making it quicker and more effective and strengthening the role of Parliament. In addition it has been extended to new areas such as social exclusion, public health and the fight against fraud affecting the European Community's financial interests.
Increasing the democratic nature of Community action requires Parliament to participate in exercising legislative power. Thus, any legislative instrument adopted by qualified majority is likely to fall within the scope of the codecision procedure. In most cases, therefore, codecision in Parliament goes hand in hand with qualified majority voting in the Council. For some provisions of the Treaty, however, codecision and unanimity still coexist.
The Treaty of Nice partially puts an end to this situation. The Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) launched in February 2000 called for an extension of the scope of codecision, in parallel with and as a supplement to the extension of qualified majority voting in the Council. Seven provisions for which the IGC planned to apply qualified majority voting are thus also subject to codecision. They are: incentives to combat discrimination, judicial cooperation in civil matters, specific industrial support measures, economic and social cohesion actions (outside the Structural Funds), the statute for European political parties and measures relating to visas, asylum and immigration.
Under the European Constitution, which is in the process of being ratified, this procedure will be extended so that it becomes the "ordinary legislative procedure". It will apply to the adoption of "European laws" and "European framework laws", the new terms for the legislative instruments provided for in the Constitution.
fr:Procédure de coopération
The cooperation procedure (Article 252 of the EC Treaty) was introduced by the Single European Act (1986). It gave the European Parliament greater influence in the legislative process by allowing it two "readings". Initially, the scope of this procedure was considerably extended by the Treaty of Maastricht; the Treaty of Amsterdam then reversed the trend by encouraging the codecision procedure (Article 251 of the EC Treaty). The cooperation procedure will therefore now apply exclusively to the field of economic and monetary union.
The cooperation procedure is always initiated by a proposal from the Commission forwarded to the Council and the European Parliament. In the context of a first reading, Parliament issues an opinion on the Commission proposal. The Council, acting by a qualified majority, then draws up a common position, which is forwarded to Parliament together with all the necessary information and the reasons which led the Council to adopt this common position.
Parliament examines this common position at second reading, and within three months may adopt, amend or reject the common position. In the latter two cases, it must do so by an absolute majority of its members. If it rejects the proposal, unanimity is required for the Council to act on a second reading.
The Commission then re-examines, within one month, the proposal upon which the Council based its common position and forwards its proposal to the Council; at its discretion it can include or exclude the amendments proposed by Parliament.
Within three months, the Council may adopt the re-examined proposal by qualified majority, amend it unanimously or adopt the amendments not taken into consideration by the Commission, also unanimously.
In the cooperation procedure, the Council may still exercise a veto by refusing to express its opinion on the amendments proposed by the European Parliament or on the amended proposal from the Commission, thereby blocking the legislative procedure.
The European Constitution, which is in the process of being ratified, envisages abolishing this procedure and replacing it either by an ordinary legislative procedure (codecision procedure) or by non-legislative acts of the Council.
laŭ speciala leĝdona(?) proceduro
en:according to a special legislative procedure
fr:conformément à une procédure législative spéciale
Unuforma voĉdona proceduro por la eŭropa Parlamento
en:Uniform electoral procedure for the European Parliament
fr:Procédure électorale uniforme au Parlement européen
nl:Eenvormige verkiezingsprocedure voor het Europees Parlement
de:Einheitliches Wahlverfahren zum Europäischen Parlament
The Treaty establishing the European Community requires the European Parliament to draw up proposals to allow its members to be elected by direct universal suffrage, either using a uniform procedure in each Member State or in accordance with shared principles. However, this is not the currently the case, as regional lists exist alongside national ones.
A procedure like this is important because it would ensure that different European political tendencies are more faithfully represented in the European Parliament.
After a number of debates and disagreements, the Council and the Parliament finally agreed on four points which harmonise the electoral process in European elections while taking account of the current situation:
Most of the rules concerning voting and elections remain distinct, in particular concerning the dates of elections, constituencies, the application of proportional representation, the number of mandates that may be held concurrently, voting and eligibility conditions and boosting equality. In terms of electoral constituencies, the majority of Member States have adopted the system of a single constituency, whereby the whole country forms one constituency. The other Member States have a number of constituencies: Ireland, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Greece, Belgium, Poland and France, which passed a law in April 2003 replacing the single constituency system with eight interregional constituencies.
In the long term the Parliament wants to move towards having a single constituency at European Union level. The European Constitution, which is currently being ratified, requires a European law or framework law to set out the measures needed to standardise the election process.
Proceso de Barcelono
fr:Processus de Barcelone
nl:Proces van Barcelona
The Barcelona Process, also known as the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, constitutes the policy of the European Union towards the Mediterranean countries. Its purpose is to strengthen the links between the Union and the partner countries, whilst encouraging closer ties among the Mediterranean countries themselves.
The objective of the Partnership launched in 1995 following the Barcelona Declaration is to promote peace and stability in the region by establishing a political dialogue that respects the partners' shared values, such as democracy and the rule of law. Further aims are to promote the prevention and resolution of conflicts, as well as prosperity, particularly through the creation of a free-trade area, and to develop cooperation.
In this context, the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership brings together the Member States of the Union and the Mediterranean countries under a large-scale programme with three strands: a political and security strand, an economic and financial strand and a social and cultural strand. Strengthening cooperation in the fields of justice, migration and social inclusion is also an important element of the Process.
The Partnership is put into effect both bilaterally and regionally. The bilateral arrangements are tailored to the individual partner country, an important aspect being the Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements. The Process is also supported by Community funding, the MEDA programme and the European Investment Bank's Facility for Euro-Mediterranean Investment and Partnership (FEMIP).
Stabiliga kaj unuiga procezo
en:Stabilisation and Association Process
fr:Processus de stabilisation et d'association
nl:Stabilisatie- en associatieproces
de:Stabilisierungs- und Assoziierungsprozess
The European Union's policy towards the countries of the Western Balkans takes the form of the Stabilisation and Association Process launched at the Zagreb Summit in November 2000. The countries concerned are: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia, including Kosovo as defined by resolution 1244 of the UN Security Council.
The process is intended to ensure peace and stability in the region by providing support for the strengthening of democracy and the rule of law and the development of a market economy. It places great stress on developing regional cooperation, e.g. by a free trade area and political dialogue.
The purpose of the Stabilisation and Association Process is to establish special relations between the countries concerned and the Union in exchange for reforms with a view to accession, which will involve aligning their legislation more closely with that of the Community. These countries are recognised as potential candidates for Union membership.
The Stabilisation and Association Process was strengthened at the Thessaloniki Summit in 2003, taking over elements of the accession process. It rests on:
The Western Balkans countries that acquire candidate country status continue to benefit from certain aspects of the Stabilisation and Association process although they are engaged in the process of accession.
Deepening refers to the integration dynamic present from the outset of the European venture. Through the customs union, the internal market, and then the Euro zone, the European Communities have grown into what aspires to be an "ever closer union" among the peoples of Europe (Article 1 of the EU Treaty). Deepening is a process parallel to, and often viewed as a necessary step prior to, enlargement.
In this spirit it has been decided to reform the main Community policies (common agricultural policy and structural policy) and the workings of the institutions to create a favourable context for new Member States to join the European Union.
protektado de la loĝantaro
protekto de la konsumantoj
fr:Protection des consommateurs
Consumer protection is dealt with in Article 153 of the EC Treaty, which was inserted by the Treaty of Maastricht. It is intended to promote consumers' health, safety, economic and legal interests, and their right to information.
Article 153 explicitly refers to another legal basis for the attainment of its objectives, namely to Article 95, which requires the codecision procedure for all measures involving closer alignment of Member States' legislation on completion of the single market where consumer protection is concerned. At the same time, it stipulates that specific action supporting and supplementing the policy pursued by the Member States is to be adopted under the codecision procedure, after consultation of the Economic and Social Committee.
A Member State may keep or introduce stricter consumer protection measures than those laid down by the Community, as long as they are compatible with the Treaty and the Commission is notified of them.
Protokolo de Kioto
fr:Protocole de Kyoto
nl:Protocol van Kyoto
Adopted in December 1997, this Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) highlights the international community's new attitude towards the phenomenon of climate change. Under the Protocol, the industrialised countries have undertaken to reduce their emissions of six greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride) by at least 5% during the period 2008–2012 compared with 1990 levels.
The Kyoto Protocol provides for three market-based mechanisms: emissions trading between countries which signed the Protocol, joint implementation of projects by these countries, and the clean development mechanism (with countries which did not sign the Protocol).
For their part, the Member States of the European Union (EU) have undertaken to reduce their emissions over the same period by 8%. In 2003, global emissions of the six greenhouse gases in the countries of the Union were 1.7% below 1990 levels.
On 31 May 2002, the Union and its Member States ratified the Kyoto Protocol. Russia's ratification of the Protocol in 2004 allowed it to enter into force on 16 February 2005 and become binding on the signatory countries.
The Kyoto Protocol is a first step towards tackling the problem of climate change. In November 2005, a Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol gave renewed impetus to the Protocol and laid the foundations for future discussions on the international framework to tackle climate change. Moreover, at the European Council in March 2007 the EU undertook unilaterally to reduce its CO2 emissions by 20% by 2020 and called on developed countries to conclude an international agreement establishing a global reduction target of 30% by 2020.
en:Right of initiative
So that it can play its role as guardian of the Treaties and defender of the general interest the Commission has been given a right of initiative which empowers and requires it to make proposals on the matters contained in the Treaty, either because the Treaty expressly so provides or because the Commission considers it necessary.
The Council and the European Parliament may also ask the Commission to put forward a proposal if they consider it necessary.
The right of initiative is regarded as a basic element in the institutional balance of the Community.
The Treaty of Amsterdam has extended the Commission's right of initiative to the new policies (health and employment), to matters relating to the free movement of persons, and to the third pillar. In the case of the third pillar, the Commission shares the right of initiative with the Member States.
fr:Droit de pétition
The right of petition is the right of any citizen of the Union, and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State, to submit a request or complaint to the European Parliament on a matter which comes within the Community's fields of activity and which affects him, her or it directly (Articles 21 and 194 of the Treaty establishing the European Community).
The Parliament's Committee on Petitions considers whether such requests are admissible. Where it sees fit, it may refer a question to the Ombudsman. When drawing up an opinion on a petition deemed to be admissible, it may ask the European Commission for documents or information. It can also send the petition to other parliamentary committees for information purposes in order for them to take action. In certain exceptional cases, the Committee on Petitions can submit a report to the Parliament for adoption in plenary session or to conduct a fact-finding mission.
rajtoj kaj devontigoj
en:rights and obligations
fr:droits et obligations
Eŭropa iniciato por demokratiokaj homaj rajtoj
en:European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR)
fr:Initiative européenne pour la démocratie et les droits de l'homme (IEDDH)
nl:Europees initiatief voor democratie en mensenrechten (EIDHR)
de:Europäische Initiative für Demokratie und Menschenrechte (EIDHR)
fr:Droits de l'Homme
nl:Rechten van de mens
The case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union recognises the principles laid down in the Council of Europe's Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), signed at Rome on 4 November 1950.
The Constitution currently being ratified provides that the European Union will have legal personality, which will enable it to accede to the ECHR.
This respect for human rights was confirmed by the Member States in the preamble to the 1986 Single Act and later incorporated into Article 6 of the EU Treaty, which is based on the ECHR and the shared constitutional traditions of the Member States.
The guarantee of respect for fundamental rights has been further strengthened by the Treaty of Amsterdam, which has extended the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice to cover respect for the rights deriving from Article 6 with regard to action by the Union institutions. At the same time, a new suspension clause lays down what action is to be taken in cases where a Member State seriously and persistently breaches the principles on which the Union is founded.
The European Constitution currently being ratified incorporates the Charter of Fundamental Rights proclaimed at the Nice European Council in December 2000. The Union will thus have a legally mandatory catalogue of fundamental rights. The Charter contains additional rights not secured by the ECHR, in particular social rights for workers, data protection, bio-ethics and the right to sound administration.
Komunumaj rajtoj/ povoj?
Community powers are those that are conferred on the European Union (EU) in specific areas by the Member States.
There are three types of powers, which depend on how they are conferred:
One of the main innovations in the European Constitution now being ratified is that it clarifies the powers of the Union. It clearly specifies the areas in which the Member States have transferred their powers of action to the Union.
It also distinguishes the following categories of Union powers, or "competences":
Eŭropo kun pluraj rapidoj
fr:Europe 'à plusieurs vitesses'
nl:Europa "met meerdere snelheden"
de:Europa unterschiedlicher Geschwindigkeiten
"Multi-speed" Europe is the term used to describe the idea of a method of differentiated integration whereby common objectives are pursued by a group of Member States both able and willing to advance, it being implied that the others will follow later.
The debate on European governance, launched by the Commission in its White Paper of July 2001, concerns all the rules, procedures and practices affecting how powers are exercised within the European Union. The aim is to adopt new forms of governance that bring the Union closer to European citizens, make it more effective, reinforce democracy in Europe and consolidate the legitimacy of the institutions. The Union must reform itself in order to fill the democratic deficit of its institutions. This governance should lie in the framing and implementation of better and more consistent policies associating civil society organisations and the European institutions. It also entails improving the quality of European legislation, making it clearer and more effective. Moreover, the European Union must contribute to the debate on world governance and play an important role in improving the operation of international institutions.
de:Gebiete in äußerster Randlage
There are seven "outermost regions": Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique and Réunion (the four French overseas departments), the Canaries (Spain), and the Azores and Madeira (Portugal). Those regions are distinguished by their low population density and considerable distance from mainland Europe. Their specific location makes them European bridgeheads for fostering trade relations with their non-EU neighbours, most of whom are less-developed countries. Above all, on account of those regions, the maritime territory of the European Union is the world's largest with an economic zone covering 25 million km².
The outermost regions are the subject of a Declaration annexed to the EC Treaty and may benefit from specific measures on the basis of Article 299 of that Treaty. This Declaration acknowledges their considerable structural backwardness. In addition, all the outermost regions are eligible for regional and social policy support measures under Objective 1 for the period from 2000 to 2006. The Declaration provides for the possibility of adopting specific measures to assist them as long as there is an objective need to promote their economic and social development. In addition, Article 299 of the Treaty authorises the Council to adopt specific measures laying down conditions for applying the Treaty and common policies to the outermost regions.
(PIV, eĉ kun ekzemplofrazo)
en:law rule; legal act
fr:règle de droit
Alta reprezentanto por la ...(S-ro kaj s-ino ...)
en:High Representative for the CFSP (Mr/Ms CFSP)
fr:Haut représentant pour la PESC (M. ou Mme PESC)
nl:Hoge vertegenwoordiger voor het gemeenschappelijk buitenlands en veiligheidsbeleid (GBVB)
de:Hoher Vertreter für die GASP (Herr und Frau GASP)
A new position of High Representative for the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) was created by the Treaty of Amsterdam (adopted in 1997). The post is held by the Secretary-General of the Council, whose task is to assist the presidency of the Union in matters relating to the common foreign and security policy. The holder of the post is also known as "Mr/Ms CFSP". The High Representative aims to allow the Union to express itself with greater visibility and coherence on the international stage by giving it a more recognisable face and voice.
The High Representative also helps in formulating, preparing and implementing policy decisions by the Council. He or she may conduct political dialogue with third parties, on the Council's behalf and at the request of the Presidency.
Responsibility for running the Council's General Secretariat rests with the Deputy Secretary-General.
The European Constitution, now being ratified, provides for the High Representative to be replaced by a minister for foreign affairs. This post merges the duties of the High Representative for the CFSP and the Commissioner for External Relations. The holder will be both a Commission vice-president and the Council's appointed representative for the CFSP.
en:Trans-European Networks (TEN)
fr:Réseaux transeuropéens (RTE)
nl:Trans-Europese netwerken (TEN)
de:Transeuropäische Netze (TEN)
The function of Trans-European Networks is to create a modern and effective infrastructure to link European regions and national networks. They are essential to proper operation of the common market, since they ensure free movement of goods, persons and services.
Title XV of the Treaty establishing the European Community provides the legal basis for Trans-European Networks, which exist in three sectors of activity:
The TEN budget heading is supplemented by contributions from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the Cohesion Fund, the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Investment Fund (EIF).
As early as 1986, the Single European Act stressed the link between smooth functioning of the single market and the goal of economic, social and territorial cohesion. The interconnection and interoperability of national infrastructure networks have emerged as key factors for coherent development planning in the Community.
Enlargement to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe is today increasing the importance of the TENs by extending their scope to the entire continent. Their efficient connection to the networks of third countries to the east (Russia and the countries of the CIS) and to the south (countries of the Mediterranean basin) will contribute to economic development and equilibrium.
Reverkado de leĝdonaj tekstoj
en:Recasting of legislation
fr:Refonte des textes législatifs
nl:Omwerking van wetgevingsteksten
de:Neufassung der Rechtsvorschriften
The recasting of legislation means the adoption, when an amendment is made to a basic instrument, of a new legal instrument which incorporates the said amendment into the basic instrument, but repeals and replaces the latter. Unlike formal consolidation, it involves changes of substance. It also gives a comprehensive overview of an area of legislation. The new legal instrument is published in the Official Journal (L series).
Revizio de la traktatoj
en:Revision of the Treaties
fr:Révision des traités
nl:Herziening van de verdragen
de:Aenderung der Verträge
Article 48 (former Article N) of the EU Treaty is the legal base which enables a conference of representatives of the Member States' governments (an IGC) to be convened for the purpose of amending the Treaties. It stipulates that any Member State, or the Commission, may submit to the Council proposals for such amendments. If the Council, after consulting Parliament and the Commission, delivers an opinion in favour of calling a conference, it is convened by the President of the Council. Any subsequent amendments enter into force two months after being ratified by all the Member States in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements.
The European Constitution currently being ratified provides for changes to the Treaty revision procedure. Revisions will generally be prepared by a procedure inspired by the Convention that drafted the European Constitution. The Convention will adopt a recommendation for changes by consensus for the IGC to approve by common agreement (i.e. unanimously). They will then have to be ratified by all the Member States. The Constitution also gives the European Parliament a right of initiative in regard to revision.
A simplified revision procedure is laid down for Union policies and activities. The IGC will not have to be convened, but unanimity in the European Council and approval by all the Member States is still required.
Propraj rimedoj/ resursoj
Originally, the Community budget depended on the Member States' financial contributions.
Under a decision adopted on 21 April 1970, the Member States' contributions were replaced by own resources. These are transfers made by the Member States to the Community budget to cover EU expenditure. The fact that the Community budget is funded from own resources makes the EU financially independent.
The combined total of all own resources may not currently exceed 1.24% of the aggregate gross national income (GNI) of the Member States. There are four types of own resource:
These two resources are what are termed the "traditional own resources".
Samcentraj rondoj/ cirkloj?
This concept involves a Europe made up of subsets of states which have achieved different levels of integration. It is not confined just to the integration structure of the European Union, and the idea has been expanded upon by a number of prominent figures. Some of them talk of "the circle of shared law" (the Union's Member States), the "adjacent circle" (the countries outside the Union waiting to join it) and "more select circles" for the purpose of greater cooperation (the currency circle, the defence circle and so on).
"puno aŭ rekompenco sekvanta ian moralan aŭ socian agon"(Reta Vortaro, ; ne registrita ĉi-sence en NP1V)
Under Article 152 of the Treaty establishing the European Community, action in the field of public health is aimed at preventing illness and diseases, including drug addiction, by promoting research into their causes and their transmission, combined with health information and education. In particular, all Community policies and activities must be devised and implemented in a way that ensures a high level of human health protection.
While Community action may complement the measures taken by Member States, the objectives set out in Article 152 are achieved mainly by encouraging cooperation between the Member States, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity.
The Community's public health goals are pursued through the action programme covering the period 2003-08, focusing on information, the ability to respond to health threats, the promotion of health and the prevention of disease.
Introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht, Community action in the field of public health was reinforced by the Treaty of Amsterdam. The European Constitution, currently being ratified, identifies public health as one of the areas in which the European Union may carry out supporting, coordinating or complementary action.
The European Union has made food safety one of the main priorities of its policy agenda. It is a horizontal objective to be taken into account in several areas of Community competence: the CAP and its rural development pillar, the environment, public health, consumer protection and the internal market.
In response to the food scares of the 1990s (BSE, foot-and-mouth disease), in January 2000 the European Commission published a White Paper on food safety, which marks an important step in the recasting of European legislation in this area. It heralds the development of a legal framework covering the entire food chain - "from farm to fork" - using a global, integrated approach. This approach sees food safety as covering animal feed and animal health, animal protection and welfare, veterinary checks, animal health measures, plant health checks, and the preparation and hygiene of foodstuffs. The White Paper also stresses the need to launch an ongoing dialogue with consumers in order to inform and educate them.
Adopted in February 2002, the Regulation forming the basis of the new food safety legislation defines six fundamental general principles:
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has been set up. Its main tasks are to provide independent scientific opinions on food safety issues, to collect and analyse data on any potential or emerging risks and to maintain an ongoing dialogue with the public. In particular, it issues scientific opinions on certain foodstuffs or ingredients (additives, GMOs). The Brussels European Council held in December 2003 established the EFSA's headquarters in Parma, Italy.
The concept of public service is a twofold one: it embraces both bodies providing services and the general-interest services they provide. Public-service obligations may be imposed by the public authorities on the body providing a service (airlines, road or rail carriers, energy producers and so on), either nationally or regionally. Incidentally, the concept of the public service and the concept of the public sector (including the civil service) are often, wrongly, confused; they differ in terms of function, status, ownership and "clientele".
Universal service is a concept developed by the Community institutions. It refers to the set of general interest demands to which services such as telecommunications and the mail should be subject throughout the Community. The aim is to ensure that all users have access to quality services at an affordable price.
Servoj pri ĝenerala ekonomia intereso
en:Services of general economic interest
fr:Services d'intérêt économique général
nl:Diensten van algemeen economisch belang
de:Dienstleistungen von allgemeinem wirtschaftlichem Interesse
Services of general economic interest are commercial services of general economic utility, on which the public authorities therefore impose specific public-service obligations (Article 86 of the EC Treaty, formerly Article 90). Transport, energy and communications services are prime examples.
Article 16, which was written into the EC Treaty by the Treaty of Amsterdam, acknowledges the place occupied by services of general economic interest in the shared values of the Union and their role in promoting social and territorial cohesion. Article 16 also states that such services must operate on the basis of principles and conditions which enable them to fulfil their functions.
Article 36 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union requires the Union to recognise and respect access to services of general economic interest to promote the social and territorial cohesion of the Union.
The Constitution currently being ratified incorporates the Charter of Fundamental Rights, including therefore Article 36. It also amends the existing Article 16 of the EC Treaty by providing that the Union and the Member States, each within their respective competences and within the scope of application of the Constitution, take care that services of general economic interest operate on the basis of principles and conditions, in particular economic and financial conditions, which enable them to fulfil their missions.
fr:Services d'intérêt général
nl:Diensten van algemeen belang
"General-interest services" are services considered to be in the general interest by the public authorities and accordingly subjected to specific public-service obligations. They include non-market services (e.g. compulsory education, social protection), obligations of the State (e.g. security and justice) and services of general economic interest (e.g. energy and communications). Article 86 of the Treaty (former Article 90) does not apply to the first two categories (non-market services and state obligations).
In May 2003 the European Commission adopted a Green Paper on services of general-interest in Europe. This opened a debate on the role of the European Union in promoting the supply of general-interest services, in defining their general-interest objectives and the way they are organised, financed and evaluated.
In May 2004 the Commission went on to issue a White Paper on services of general interest, in which it sets out the approach taken by the European Union to promoting the development of quality general-interest services. It presents the elements of a strategy to ensure that all citizens and firms in the Union have access to quality general-interest services at affordable prices. The Commission has decided to develop its sectoral approach without issuing a general directive for the moment.
en:Abstention, constructive (positive abstention)
fr:Abstention constructive (abstention positive)
Constructive abstention is the idea of allowing a Member State to abstain on a vote in Council under the common foreign and security policy (CFSP), without blocking a unanimous decision.
This option was introduced by the Treaty of Amsterdam in the new Article 23 of the Treaty on European Union (EU Treaty). If abstention is accompanied by a formal declaration, the Member State in question is not obliged to apply the decision but must accept that it commits the Union. The Member State must then refrain from any action that might conflict with Union action based on that decision.
In accordance with Article 23 of the EU Treaty, the decision cannot be adopted if the members of the Council attaching such a declaration to their abstention represent more than one third of the weighted votes.
Komuna starpunkto (Titiolo VI de la EUa Traktato)
en:Joint position (Title VI of the EU Treaty)
fr:Position commune (Titre VI du traité UE)
nl:Gemeenschappelijk standpunt (Titel VI van het VEU)
de:Gemeinsamer Standpunkt (Titel VI EU-Vertrag) Gemeinsame Aktion (GASP)
The joint position was introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht under the heading of cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs. The Treaty of Amsterdam retains this instrument in the new Title VI of the EU Treaty (police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters).
The joint position is a legal instrument enabling the Council to define the Union's approach on any specific issue. Member States are required to give full effect, both domestically and in foreign policy, to decisions adopted unanimously in meetings of the Council.
The European Constitution, which is in the process of being ratified, envisages abolishing the third pillar and gradually replacing the existing joint position with European laws and framework laws.
Statuto de la eŭropaj delegitoj/parlamentanoj
en:Statute for Members of the European Parliament
fr:Statut des députés européens
nl:Statuut van de Europese afgevaardigden
de:Statut der Abgeordneten des Europäischen Parlaments
Article 190 of the Treaty establishing the European Community provides that the European Parliament shall lay down the regulations and general conditions governing the performance of the duties of its Members after seeking an opinion from the Commission and with the approval of the Council acting by a qualified majority (except as regards taxation, for which unanimity within the Council is required).
After nearly ten years of negotiations between Parliament and the Council, new rules were finally adopted in September 2005.
This new statute does away with the differences in the remuneration of Members of the European Parliament depending on their country of origin, providing for a basic monthly salary of EUR 7 000, which is subject to Community tax. At present, the MEPs are paid by the parliaments of their countries of origin and generally receive the same salary as their national counterparts.
The other main changes introduced by the new regime are as follows:
The new rules will enter into force on the first day of the Parliamentary session beginning in 2009.
Statutoj de la eŭropaj politikaj partioj
en:European political parties
fr:Statut des partis politiques européens
nl:Statuut van de Europese politieke partijen
de:Satzung der europäischen politischen Parteien
The Regulation on the regulations governing political parties at European level and the rules regarding their funding entered into force in 2004. It lays down conditions for recognition of a European political party, generating entitlement to Community funding:
The conditions to be met for entitlement to Community funding (8.4 million annually) are also set: it must declare its sources of funding, and certain sources are prohibited. Community funds must be used solely to cover expenditure related to its political programme and can in no circumstances be used to finance national political parties.
The European People's Party (EPP), the Party of European Socialists (PSE), the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE), the European Green Party (EGP) and European United Left (GUE) are just some of the parties set up in European form.
fr:Stratégie de préadhésion
The pre-accession strategy offers a "structured dialogue" between the candidate countries and the EU institutions throughout the accession process, providing all the parties with a framework and the necessary instruments. It is laid down for each candidate country individually.
The pre-accession strategy follows on from the European Council of Luxembourg (December 1997) during which a reinforced pre-accession strategy for the ten Central and Eastern European candidate countries was launched. It is essentially based on:
In addition to these main instruments, the pre-accession strategy may include others for individual candidates, depending on their particular circumstances.
en:Common strategy (CFSP)
fr:Stratégie commune (PESC)
nl:Gemeenschappelijke strategie (GBVB)
The common strategy is an instrument of the common foreign and security policy introduced by the Treaty of Amsterdam.
Under Article 13 of the EU Treaty, the European Council defines the principles and general guidelines for the CFSP and decides on common strategies to be implemented by the Union in fields where the Member States have important interests in common.
In concrete terms, a common strategy sets out the aims and length of time covered and the means to be made available by the Union and the Member States. Common strategies are implemented by the Council, in particular by adopting joint actions and common positions. The Council can recommend common strategies to the European Council.
The European Constitution, now being ratified, provides for common strategies, though they have been little used, in the form of general guidelines, including on issues with implications for defence. Their drafting and implementation will call for European decisions on joint actions or common positions.
fr:Stratégie de Lisbonne
nl:Strategie van Lissabon
During the meeting of the European Council in Lisbon (March 2000), the Heads of State or Government launched a "Lisbon Strategy" aimed at making the European Union (EU) the most competitive economy in the world and achieving full employment by 2010. This strategy, developed at subsequent meetings of the European Council, rests on three pillars:
A list of targets has been drawn up with a view to attaining the goals set in 2000. Given that the policies in question fall almost exclusively within the sphere of competence of the Member States, an open method of coordination (OMC) entailing the development of national action plans has been introduced. Besides the broad economic policy guidelines, the Lisbon Strategy provides for the adaptation and strengthening of existing coordination mechanisms: the Luxembourg process for employment, the Cardiff process for the functioning of markets (goods, services and capital) and the Cologne process on macroeconomic dialogue.
The mid-term review held in 2005, for which a report was prepared under the guidance of Wim Kok, former Prime Minister of the Netherlands, showed that the indicators used in the OMC had caused the objectives to become muddled and that the results achieved had been unconvincing.
For this reason, the Council has approved a new partnership aimed at focusing efforts on the achievement of stronger, lasting growth and the creation of more and better jobs. As far as implementation is concerned, the coordination process has been simplified. The integrated guidelines for growth and employment will henceforth be presented jointly with the guidelines for macroeconomic and microeconomic policies, over a three-year period. They serve as a basis both for the Community Lisbon Programme and for the National Reform Programmes. This simplification in programming makes it possible to monitor implementation more closely by using one single progress report.
La vortaro New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 1993, diras ke la termino envenis la anglan el la germana, meze de la 20-a jc. Ĝi difinas subsidiarecon kiel "la principon laŭ kiu centra autoritato devus havi subsidiaran funkcion, plenumante nur tiujn taskojn kiuj nepovas esti efike plenumataj ĉe pli rekta au loka nivela".
The subsidiarity principle is intended to ensure that decisions are taken as closely as possible to the citizen and that constant checks are made as to whether action at Community level is justified in the light of the possibilities available at national, regional or local level. Specifically, it is the principle whereby the Union does not take action (except in the areas which fall within its exclusive competence) unless it is more effective than action taken at national, regional or local level. It is closely bound up with the principles of proportionality and necessity, which require that any action by the Union should not go beyond what is necessary to achieve the objectives of the Treaty.
The Edinburgh European Council of December 1992 defined the basic principles underlying subsidiarity and laid down guidelines for interpreting Article 5, which enshrines subsidiarity in the EU Treaty. Its conclusions were set out in a declaration that still serves as the cornerstone of the subsidiarity principle.
The Treaty of Amsterdam has taken up the approach that follows from this declaration in a Protocol on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality annexed to the EC Treaty. Two of the things this Protocol introduces are the systematic analysis of the impact of legislative proposals on the principle of subsidiarity and the use, where possible, of less binding Community measures.
The European Constitution currently being ratified provides for enhancing the subsidiarity principle, in particular by means of an obligation for the Union institutions to inform national parliaments at all stages of the legislative procedure. The establishment of an early-warning system regarding respect for the subsidiarity principle will enable national parliaments to ask the Commission to review a legislative proposal if they consider that it violates the principle.
fr:Egalité des chances
The general principle of equal opportunities contains two key elements: one is the ban on discrimination on grounds of nationality, and the other is equality for men and women. It is intended to apply to all fields, particularly economic, social, cultural and family life.
The Treaty of Amsterdam added a new provision, reinforcing the principle of non-discrimination, which is closely linked to equal opportunities. Under this new provision, the Council has the power to take appropriate action to combat discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. Moreover, thanks to its programme to combat discrimination (2001-2006), the European Union has been encouraging and complementing the activities of the Member States to combat all forms of discrimination.
Adopted in December 2000, and due to be incorporated in the European Constitution, which is currently being ratified, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union includes a chapter entitled "Equality" which sets out the principles of non-discrimination, equality between men and women, and cultural, religious and linguistic diversity. It also covers the rights of the child, the elderly and persons with disabilities.
The Constitution explicitly adds the principles of equality and the ban on discrimination to the values on which the Union is founded. The text identifies them as general provisions that the Union must promote in the definition and implementation of its policies and actions.
Ŝengen (Interkonsento kaj konvencio)
en:Schengen (Agreement and Convention)
fr:Schengen (accord et convention)
nl:Schengen (akkoord en uitvoeringsovereenkomst)
de:Schengen (Abkommen und Übereinkommen)
By the Schengen Agreement signed on 14 June 1985, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands agreed that they would gradually remove controls at their common borders and introduce freedom of movement for all nationals of the signatory Member States, other Member States or third countries.
The Schengen Convention supplements the Agreement and lays down the arrangements and safeguards for implementing freedom of movement. It was signed by the same five Member States on 19 June 1990 but did not enter into force until 1995.
The Agreement and the Convention, the rules adopted on that basis and the related agreements together form the "Schengen acquis". Since 1999, this has formed part of the institutional and legal framework of the European Union by virtue of a protocol to the Treaty of Amsterdam.
The Schengen agreements have been extended over time to all 15 old Member States: Italy signed them in 1990, Spain and Portugal in 1991, Greece in 1992, Austria in 1995 and Finland, Sweden and Denmark (under a special arrangement) in 1996. Ireland and the United Kingdom are only partial participants in the Schengen acquis, since their border controls have been maintained.
The 10 new Member States have adopted the Schengen acquis, but a decision of the Council of the European Union will be required before controls at their borders are lifted.
Two non-Community countries -- Iceland and Norway -- have also belonged to the Schengen area since 1996, though they have only a limited role in decision-taking. Switzerland has also begun to work towards joining the Schengen acquis.
Countries that are candidates for Union membership must have accepted the whole of the Schengen acquis at the time of accession.
en:the nationals of that State;
fr:les ressortissants de cet État
la Ŝtatestroj aŭ Registarestrojde la Membroŝtatoj
en:the Heads of State or Government of the Member States
fr:les Chefs d’État ou de gouvernement des États membres
State aid means action by a (national, regional or local) public authority, using public resources, to favour certain undertakings or the production of certain goods. A business that benefits from such aid thus enjoys an advantage over its competitors. Control of state aids thus reflects the need to maintain free and fair competition within the European Union.
Aid which is granted selectively by Member States or through state resources and which may affect trade between Member States or distort competition is therefore prohibited (Article 87 of the Treaty establishing the European Community). State aid may nonetheless be permitted if justified by objectives of general interest: aid to promote the development of disadvantaged areas or for services of general economic interest, small and medium-sized enterprises, research and development, environmental protection, training, employment and culture.
The European Commission has the task of keeping under review state aid granted by the Member States, whether planned or already operational, in order to ensure that it does not distort competition.
The Commission and the Court of Justice have placed a very broad interpretation on the concept of "aid" as regards the body granting it (the state itself, a regional or local authority, a body over which the state exercises a dominant influence, directly or indirectly, a private company or a publicly owned company operating under private law, etc.), its form (direct or indirect aid, such as relief of a firm's financial burdens) and its purpose.
A reform of the rules and procedures concerning state aid is in hand. It proposes that state aid should be less frequent and better targeted in order to make a greater contribution to raising the competitiveness of European industry and creating lasting jobs.
fr:l’ordre du jour
TAIEX (Technical Assistance and Information Exchange)
La Programo de Teknika Helpo kaj de interŝanĝo de Informoj (TAIEX) celas helpi instituciojn dum misioj je mallonga tempolimo, kaj aplikiĝas en okazoj de alpreno aŭ efektivigo de komunuma havaĵo. Tiu programo estis funkcianta ekde 1996, kaj ĝiaj respondecoj kaj agterenoj multe plivastiĝis ekde tiam.
TAIEX helpo celas kandidatlandojn, aliĝantajn landojn kadre de la antaŭ-aliĝa strategio kaj provprocezo, la dek novajn Membroŝtatoj kaj la landojn de la Okcidentaj Balkanoj.
TAIEX ankaŭ celas la landojn kiuj partoprenas al la Eŭropa najbarpolitiko kaj al Rusio, al kiuj ĝi helpas dum redaktado kaj efektivigado de iliajn leĝjon konforme al ilia agoplanoj.
TAIEX centralizas petojn al helpo ambaŭ de publikaj respondeculoj kaj de privata sektoro kaj faciligas la kontaktoj inter la petantoj kaj la Membroŝtatoj. Ĝi disponigas fakulojn kaj aranĝas kontrolesplorojn de samfakuloj, studo- aŭ takso-vizitoj, seminarioj, laborkunvenoj kaj trejnkunsidoj. Ĝi ankaŭ helpas traduki leĝojn kaj de fakaj informbankoj kaj provizas informojn pri la harmanizado de leĝoj.
Taskoj de Petersberg
fr:Missions de Petersberg
The "Petersberg tasks" are an integral part of the European security and defence policy (ESDP). They were explicitly included in the Treaty on European Union (Article 17) and cover:
These tasks were set out in the Petersberg Declaration adopted at the Ministerial Council of the Western European Union (WEU) in June 1992.
On that occasion, the WEU Member States declared their readiness to make available to the WEU, but also to NATO and the European Union, military units from the whole spectrum of their conventional armed forces.
en:Telecommunications or Electronic communications
With a view to completion of the internal market, telecommunications liberalisation emerged as a priority for the European Community at the end of the 1980s. It began in 1988 with the opening up of the telecommunications terminals markets to competition and continued in 1990 with the liberalisation of telecommunications services other than voice telephony.
In 1993, the Council of Ministers decided to fully liberalise voice telephony services by 1 January 1998.
In the meantime, the liberalisation process was extended in 1994 to satellite communications and broadcasting services and then, in 1996, to cable television networks and mobile communications. At the same time, an open telecommunications infrastructure and services network (ONP) was put in place from 1990. The adoption of common rules allowed the conditions of access to the market for new operators to be harmonised.
From 1994 onwards, in the context of developing the 'information society', general liberalisation of telecommunications structures was presented as the way to develop multimedia. Various initiatives were adopted on the harmonisation of mobile (single European GSM standard) and satellite communications standards, and the integrated services digital network (ISDN).
On 1 January 1998, the full liberalisation of Europe's telecommunications market became a reality.
In order to accompany the opening of the sector to competition, the European Commission began the huge task, in 1999, of recasting Europe's regulatory framework for telecommunications. The general aim was to improve access to the information society by striking a balance between regulation of the sector and Europe's competition rules. This regulatory framework for electronic communications is made up of five harmonising directives, focussing in particular on the framework directives, access and interconnection, authorisation, universal service and users rights and protection of privacy. To these were added the Decision of 2002 on radio spectrum policy and the Regulation of 2002 on access to the local loop.
The Commission is currently re-examining this regulatory framework with a view to taking technological changes in the market into account and meeting the needs of the sector over the next ten years.
Televido sen limoj
en:Television without frontiers
fr:Télévision sans frontières
nl:Televisie zonder grenzen
de:Fernsehen ohne Grenzen
The concept of Television without Frontiers is based on the free movement of European television programmes within the internal market and on the introduction of broadcasting quotas (the requirement that television channels reserve over half of their broadcasting time for European works).
The Television without Frontiers (TWF) Directive is the cornerstone of audiovisual policy in the European Community. It aims to safeguard certain important public interest objectives, such as cultural diversity, protection of minors (measures against programmes of a violent or pornographic nature) and the right of reply. Detailed rules on the content and frequency of television advertising have also been introduced.
After consulting the parties concerned, in December 2005 the Commission published a proposal for revision of the TWF Directive with a view to modernising the existing rules. The main objective of this revision is to take account of technological developments and changes in the structure of the audiovisual market since the Directive was adopted in 1989. The new proposal also aims to reduce the current regulatory burden on audiovisual service providers. This will apply in particular to provisions on advertising, for which the Commission proposes that the rules be made more flexible.
Traktato de Amsterdamo
en:Treaty of Amsterdam
nl:Verdrag van Amsterdam
de:Vertrag von Amsterdam
The Treaty of Amsterdam is the result of the Intergovernmental Conference launched at the Turin European Council on 29 March 1996. It was adopted at the Amsterdam European Council on 16 and 17 June 1997 and signed on 2 October 1997 by the Foreign Ministers of the fifteen Member States. It entered into force on 1 May 1999 (the first day of the second month following ratification by the last Member State) after ratification by all the Member States in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements.
From the legal point of view, the Treaty amends certain provisions of the EU Treaty, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, creating a Community employment policy, transferring to the Communities some of the areas in the field of justice and home affairs (JHA), reforming the common foreign and security policy (CFSP), extending qualified-majority voting and enabling closer cooperation between Member States. It does not replace the other Treaties; rather, it stands alongside them.
Traktato de Nico
en:Treaty of Nice
fr:Traité de Nice
nl:Verdrag van Nice
de:Vertrag von Nizza
Adopted at the Nice European Council in December 2000, and signed on 26 February 2001, the Treaty of Nice entered into force on 1 February 2003.
It is the result of the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) that began in February 2000, the objective of which was to gear the working of the European institutions before the arrival of new Member States.
The Treaty of Nice opened the way to the institutional reform needed for the EU enlargement with the accession of countries from eastern and southern Europe. Some of the provisions it contains were adapted by the Accession Treaty, which was signed in Athens in April 2003 and entered into force on the day of enlargement, 1 May 2004.
The main changes made by the Treaty of Nice relate to limiting the size and composition of the Commission, extending qualified majority voting, a new weighting of votes within the Council and making the strengthened cooperation arrangements more flexible.
The Declaration on the Future of the Union, annexed to the Treaty, sets out the next steps to be taken to deepen the institutional reforms and to make sure that the Treaty of Nice is just one stage in this process.
The European Constitution, which is currently being ratified, completes the process of reforming the Union. When the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe enters into force, it will repeal and replace the Treaty of Nice.
Traktato pri Estigo de Eŭropa Konstitucio
en:Treaty establishing aConstitution for Europe
fr:TRAITE ÉTABLISSANT UNECONSTITUTION POUR L’EUROPE
The establishment of the first "Community", the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), was the starting point for over fifty years of European treaty-making. From 1951 (ECSC Treaty) to 2001(Treaty of Nice), no fewer than sixteen treaties were signed. This series of treaties did far more than simply amend the original text: new treaties were born and gradually extended the family.
Here is the list of the principal treaties:
All these treaties have been amended on a number of occasions, in particular at the time of accession of new Member States in 1973 (Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom), in 1981 (Greece), in 1986 (Spain and Portugal), in 1995 (Austria, Finland and Sweden), in 2004 (Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia), and in 2007 (Bulgaria and Romania).
The European constitutional treaty, signed in October 2004, will repeal and replace by a single instrument all the existing treaties with the exception of the Euratom Treaty. This instrument will consolidate 50 years of European treaties. The Constitution will not enter into force until it has been ratified by the 27 Member States.
Legebleco de la traktatoj;
klareco de la traktatoj;
plisimpligo de la traktatoj
en:Clarity of the Treaties (simplification of the Treaties)
fr:Lisibilité des traités (simplification des traités)
nl:Leesbaarheid van de Verdragen (vereenvoudiging van deverdragen)
The European Union has come into being gradually and its structure is the result of a succession of amendments to the various treaties. This has led to a situation where the lack of clarity and readability of the founding texts of the Union has created a gulf between the Union and the public.
The Treaty of Rome was followed by the Single European Act and the Treaty on European Union (the "Maastricht Treaty"). This Treaty created a new structure, the European Union, in addition to the European Communities, which has three pillars (the European Communities, common foreign and security policy and cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs). The Nice and Amsterdam Treaties contain amendments to the earlier treaties and a new article numbering system. Several protocols and declarations are also annexed to these treaties.
In December 2001 the Laeken Declaration launched a process of simplification of the treaties. The process culminated in the adoption of the Constitution currently being ratified, which substantially simplifies the Treaties.
Once it is in force, the Constitution will repeal all the existing primary legislation - preceding treaties, instruments amending or amplifying them, and treaties and acts of accession. The European Union will thus operate on the basis of a single instrument.
en:Community 'bridge' (Title VI of the EU Treaty)
fr:Passerelle communautaire (titre VI du traité UE)
The decision-making process under the Treaty establishing the European Community (first pillar) may be introduced for certain provisions of Title VI of the Treaty on European Union (third pillar) in order to communitise them. This possibility has been available since the establishing of the European Union. This procedure, known as the "bridge", requires unanimity in the Council and ratification by each Member State in accordance with its national constitutional requirements.
The European Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, provides for the abolition of the bridge as conceived by the Maastricht Treaty, as the pillars will disappear. On the other hand it introduces another bridging mechanism allowing a change to qualified-majority voting for the adoption of legal instruments. However, the decision is taken by the European Council, acting unanimously. Two specific bridges are also envisaged for the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) -- with the exception of decisions with military or defence implications -- and for the multiannual financial framework respectively.
en:Transparency (access to documents)
fr:Transparence (accès aux documents)
nl:Doorzichtigheid (toegang tot documenten)
de:Transparenz (Zugang zu den Dokumenten)
Article 255 of the EC Treaty gives any citizen of the Union, and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State, the right of access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents.
The Regulation of 30 May 2001 implements this right of access to documents from the three institutions. However, it still provides for two types of exceptions: cases in which access is automatically refused (for reasons of public security, defence, international relations) and cases in which access is refused (protection of the commercial interests of a private individual, for example) except where there is an overriding public interest in disclosure.
In addition, access to documents must be facilitated through the implementation of an electronic public register.
The concept of transparency refers to the openness of the Community institutions and to their clear functioning. Transparency is linked to the citizens' demands for wider access to information and EU documents and for greater involvement in the decision-making process which would help foster a feeling of closeness to the Union.
Article 255 was inserted into the Treaty in 1997 but the Council and the Commission had previously adopted a code of conduct in December 1993. This code of conduct established common principles for the two institutions in line with declaration No 17 on the right of access to information annexed to the Final Act of the Treaty on European Union. On the basis of this code of conduct, the two institutions incorporated specific provisions on access to their documents into their rules of procedure.
The draft Constitution in the process of ratification extends the principle of access to documents to all EU institutions, bodies, offices and agencies.
Travidebleco de la agoj de la konsilio
en:Transparency of Council proceedings
fr:Transparence des travaux du Conseil
nl:Doorzichtigheid van de werkzaamheden van de Raad
de:Transparenz der Arbeit des Rates
In its Rules of Procedure, the Council of the European Union lays down the conditions under which the public may have access to its documents (Article 207 of the Treaty establishing the European Community). Better access is to be provided to documents concerning its legislative function (Article 7 of the Council's Rules of Procedure). In particular, "the results of votes and explanations of votes as well as statements in minutes are to be made public".
As regards deliberations and debates under the codecision procedure, the debates following the Commission's presentation of its draft legislation and the votes (including the final deliberations and explanations of votes) are public. Public debates on general policy and major legislative proposals are also held once per year. Public access is normally ensured by audiovisual means.
In principle, votes, explanations of votes and Council minutes are public when the Council is acting in its legislative role. The results of votes on certain decisions, in particular those relating to the second and third pillars, may also be published, subject to conditions. On the other hand, indicative votes and the adoption of preparatory acts are not made public.
Otherwise, Council deliberations are subject to professional confidentiality.
Transparency of the Council proceedings is thus covered by by Article 255 of the EC Treaty, added by the Treaty of Amsterdam, which states that any citizen of the Union, and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State, shall have a right of access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents. Like the other European institutions, the Council must also make public a register of documents.
The European Constitution now being ratified provides that the Council shall meet in public when examining and adopting a legislative proposal.
la Alta Tribunalo
en:the High Court
fr:le Tribunal de grande instance
Unua instanca tribunalo de la eŭropaj komunumoj
en:Court of First Instance of the European Communities (CFI)
fr:Tribunal de première instance des Communautés européennes(TPICE)
nl:Gerecht van eerste aanleg van de Europese Gemeenschappen
Like the Court of Justice (ECJ), the Court of First Instance of the European Communities (CFI) ensures that the Community institutions and Member States comply with the law in interpreting and applying the founding treaties. The CFI was set up in 1989, creating a two-tier judicial authority to strengthen the protection of parties' interests by reducing the caseload of the ECJ and allowing cases to be dealt with more quickly.
The CFI is made up of at least one judge from each Member State (Article 224 of the Treaty establishing the European Community). The Statute of the Court of Justice sets the number of judges at 27. They are appointed by agreement of the Member State governments for a renewable mandate of six years. They appoint their President, for a renewable period of three years, from amongst themselves. There are no permanent advocates-general, but the CFI judges may perform this task. The CFI sits in chambers of five or three judges or, in some cases, as a single judge.
To allow a further easing of the burden on the ECJ, the CFI is competent for all direct actions brought by persons and Member States (appeals against a decision, failure to act, damages, etc.), with the exception of those assigned to a judicial panel and those reserved for the Court of Justice (Article 225 of the EC Treaty). On the basis of a right of initiative shared by the Court of Justice and the Commission, judicial panels may be created to examine at first instance certain proceedings brought in specific areas. This option was used to create a European Civil Service Tribunal, which has been in place since February 2005. The CFI may also be empowered to deliver preliminary rulings in specific areas laid down by the Statute of the Court of Justice. Its decisions are subject to a right of appeal to the Court of Justice, in principle on points of law only.
The European Constitution now being ratified provides for the establishment of a two-division institution, the "Court of Justice of the European Union", comprising the supreme court (the "European Court of Justice") and the "High Court". Specialised courts may also be attached to the High Court, which will include at least one judge per Member State.
la fakaj tribunaloj
fr:les tribunaux spécialisés
Triopo (reprezentantaro de EU)
The "Troïka" represents the European Union in external relations that fall within the scope of the common foreign and security policy (CFSP).
Since the Treaty of Amsterdam, the Troïka has brought together:
The Presidency can also be assisted, where necessary, by the representatives of the future Presidency (Article 18 of the Treaty on European Union).
Tutmondig(/iĝ)o de la ekonomio
en:Globalisation of the economy
fr:Globalisation de l'économie (mondialisation)
de:Globalisierung der Wirtschaft (Internationalisierung)
Globalisation refers to the phenomenon of the opening up of economies and borders, resulting from the increase in trade and capital movements, the movement of people and ideas, spread of information, knowledge and technology and from a process of deregulation. This process, both geographic and sectoral, is not recent but has been accelerating in recent years.
While globalisation is the source of many opportunities, it remains one of the greatest challenges facing the European Union today. In order to exploit fully the growth potential arising from this phenomenon and ensure that its benefits are shared fairly, the EU is working on setting up, via multilateral governance, a model for sustainable development aimed at reconciling economic growth, social cohesion and environmental protection.
Ekonomia kaj Mona Unio
en:Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)
fr:Union économique et monétaire (UEM)
nl:Economische en Monetaire Unie (EMU)
Economic and monetary union (EMU) is the process of harmonising the economic and monetary policies of the Member States of the Union with a view to the introduction of a single currency, the euro. It was the subject of an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC), which concluded its deliberations in Maastricht in December 1991.
EMU was achieved in three stages:
When the third stage of EMU was launched, eleven Member States adopted the euro as the single currency. They were joined two years later by Greece. Slovenia entered the euro zone on 1 January 2007.
Three Member States did not adopt the single currency: the United Kingdom and Denmark, both of which have an opt-out clause, and Sweden, following a referendum in September 2003. The States which joined the Union on 1 May 2004 and 1 January 2007 are required to adopt the euro as soon as they meet all the convergence criteria. They were not granted opt-out clauses during the accession negotiations.
The challenges facing the long-term success of EMU are continued budgetary consolidation and closer coordination of Member States' economic policies.
The European Union (EU) was established by the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht, 1992).
The project of creating a Union has a long history, and was first mooted at the European summit of 1972.
The Union is both a political project and a form of legal organisation.
It is a political project in that the Union's task is "to organise, in a manner demonstrating consistency and solidarity, relations between the Member States and between their peoples" (Article 1 of the Treaty on European Union).
To achieve this, the Union is set a number of objectives:
The European Constitution now being ratified adds two further aspects. First of all, the Union is founded on values: respect for human dignity, liberty, democracy, equality, the rule of law and human rights. It also has its own symbols: a flag (twelve stars on a blue background), an anthem (Ludwig van Beethoven's "Ode to Joy"), a motto ("United in diversity"), a currency (the euro) and a Europe day (9 May).
The Union is a form of legal organisation consisting of three pillars:
It has a single institutional framework for the three pillars (essentially consisting of the European Council, the European Parliament, the Council of the Union and the European Commission). This ensures coherence and consistency in the Union's action across the pillars.
The Treaties do not officially confer legal personality on the Union but there is a consensus among the political players that this should be done. This option is endorsed by the Constitution, which clearly provides that the Union shall have such personality.
en:Western European Union (WEU)
fr:Union de l'Europe occidentale (UEO)
nl:West-Europese Unie (WEU)
de:Westeuropäische Union (WEU)
Set up in 1948 by the Treaty of Brussels, the WEU is a European organisation for the purposes of cooperation on defence and security. It consists of 28 countries with four different statuses: Member States, Associate Members, Observers and Associate Partners. Of the EU-15 countries, ten are full Member States, while the remaining five - Austria, Denmark, Finland, Ireland and Sweden - have observer status. The six Associate Members are the Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland and Turkey, and there are seven Associate Partners: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia.
In the Treaty of Amsterdam the WEU was defined as an integral part of the development of the Union because it gave the EU operational capability in the field of defence. However, the paragraph concerned was deleted by the Treaty of Nice. The WEU did indeed play a major role in the first Petersberg tasks, such as the police detachment in Mostar or cooperation with the police in Albania. However, it now seems to have abandoned that role in favour of developing the Union's own structures and capabilities in the sphere of the European security and defence policy (ESDP). The transfer of the WEU's operational capabilities to the Union attests to this. The WEU's subsidiary bodies, the Security Studies Institute and the Satellite Centre, were hived off to the Union on 1 January 2002. The Treaty of Nice also deleted from the Treaty on European Union a number of provisions concerning relations between the WEU and the Union.
Collective defence, a primary responsibility of the WEU, now falls within the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) sphere of competence. The European Constitution, currently being ratified, refers to NATO as the foundation of the collective defence of those States which are members of it and the forum for its implementation.
nl:Eenparigheid van stemmen
The term "unanimity" means the requirement for all the Member States meeting within the Council to be in agreement before a proposal can be adopted.
Since the Single European Act, it has applied to fewer and fewer areas. In the context of the first pillar, voting by qualified majority is now the rule. The second and third pillars, however, still operate largely according to the intergovernmental method and the unanimity requirement, although the Treaty of Nice introduced qualified majority voting in certain areas.
In view of the challenge posed by enlargement and its consequences in terms of unanimity, the European Constitution (currently being ratified) makes qualified majority voting the general procedure. But there are around 60 areas in which unanimity is still required, including taxation linked to the internal market and minimum social security standards. A "bridge" clause provides a basis for changing to QMV in certain cases.
Green Papers are documents published by the European Commission to stimulate discussion on given topics at European level. They invite the relevant parties (bodies or individuals) to participate in a consultation process and debate on the basis of the proposals they put forward. Green Papers may give rise to legislative developments that are then outlined in White Papers.
Green Papers on entrepreneurship in Europe (2003), on demographic change and a new solidarity between the generations (2005) or, more recently on a European strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy (2006) are examples of topics discussed.
Environmental liability is an application of the "polluter pays" principle outlined in the Treaty establishing the European Community. Arrangements for applying it are set out in Directive 2004/35/EC.
It applies to environmental damage and the risk of damage resulting from commercial activities, once it is possible to establish a causal link between the damage and the activity in question. Environmental damage is defined as direct or indirect damage caused to the aquatic environment, flora and fauna and natural habitats protected by the Natura 2000 network, as well as direct or indirect contamination of the soil which could lead to a serious risk to human health.
Two systems of liability have been created: a system with no fault to be proved and a system where evidence of a fault or negligence must be presented. The former applies to dangerous or potentially dangerous commercial activities listed in the Community legislation. In this case, the operator may be held liable even if he has committed no fault. The second system applies to all other commercial activities where species and natural habitats protected under Community law have been damaged or are at imminent risk of damage. In this case, the operator will not be liable unless he has committed a fault or has been negligent.
The European Union's environment policy, based on Article 174 of the Treaty establishing the European Community, aims to preserve, protect and improve the quality of the environment and to protect human health. It also focuses on the careful and rational use of natural resources and contributes to promoting, at international level, measures intended to combat regional or global environmental problems.
It is based on the precautionary, preventive action, correction at source and "polluter pays" principles.
The Sixth Environment Action Programme, adopted in 2002, defines the priorities and objectives of European environmental policy until 2010, concentrating on four priority areas: climate change; nature and biodiversity; environment, health and quality of life; and natural resources and wastes. It is complemented by seven thematic strategies in the following areas: atmospheric pollution, waste, the marine environment, soils, pesticides, natural resources and the urban environment.
Over the past thirty years, European environmental action has evolved from the resolution of certain specific problems to a more horizontal, preventive and integrated approach. The idea of "sustainable development" was enshrined as one of the objectives of the Union in the Amsterdam Treaty, and the mainstreaming of environmental protection has been reinforced in other Community policies, in particular those pertaining to the internal market, transport and energy.
It has been made easier for a Member State to apply stricter standards than the harmonised standards, as long as they are compatible with the Treaty and communicated to the Commission.
Most of the Community acts in this area have been adopted in accordance with the codecision procedure, with the exception of certain fields such as fiscal provisions, land use planning or areas that significantly affect Member States' choices with regard to energy.
Most of the Community acts in this area have been adopted in accordance with the codecision procedure, with the exception of certain fields such as fiscal provisions, land use planning or areas that significantly affect Member States' choices with regard to energy.